Bristow, Benjamin - M 1755/05/19

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                            The Life of Bristow, Benjamin
1755/05/19 to ----/--/-- male No children
...Date... AGE Event
1755/--/-- -1 - Adventurer and lover Casanova is arrested in Venice for witchcraft.
1755/--/-- -1 - Pasquale Paoli founds an independent state in Corsica.
1755/--/-- -1 - Samuel Johnson publishes his Dictionary of the English Language.
1755/--/-- -1 - The British under Braddock are defeated by the French at Fort Duquesne.
1755/--/-- -1 - The French population of Acadia (Nova Scotia) is deported by the British.
1755/--/-- -1 - The Lisbon earthquake kills 50,000.
1755/05/19 0 *** Bristow, Benjamin - Born to Bristow, Jedediah and Elinor
1756/--/-- 0 - 123 British soldiers are alleged to have died in the Black Hole of Calcutta in Bengal, India.
1756/--/-- 0 - French general Montcalm captures Fort Oswego and dominates the Great Lakes.
1756/--/-- 0 - The Seven Years' War begins with a Prussian attack on Austria.
1756/--/-- 0 - William Pitt (the Elder) becomes prime minister of Britain.
1757/--/-- 1 - Frederick II of Prussia defeats the Franco-Austrian army at Rossbach.
1757/--/-- 1 - Robert Clive defeats the nawab of Bengal at the Battle of Plassey in India.
1758/--/-- 2 - Americans and British regulars under General Forbes capture Fort Duquesne.
1758/--/-- 2 - The Burmese overthrow the Mons; Rangoon becomes the new capital of Burma.
1758/--/-- 2 - The French under Montcalm defeat the British at Fort Ticonderoga.
1759/--/-- 3 - French poet and dramatist Voltaire publishes his philosophical novel Candide.
1759/--/-- 3 - Josiah Wedgwood establishes his first pottery works.
1759/--/-- 3 - The Botanical Gardens are founded at Kew in London.
1759/--/-- 3 - The British defeat the French at Niagara; Amherst captures Fort Ticonderoga.
1759/--/-- 3 - The British under Wolfe defeat Montcalm at Quebec; Wolfe dies from his wounds.
1759/--/-- 3 - The Russians defeat Frederick II at Kunersdorf.
1760/--/-- 4 - English architect Robert Adam begins the design of Syon House.
1760/--/-- 4 - English novelist Laurence Sterne publishes the first volumes of Tristram Shandy.
1760/--/-- 4 - George II dies; he is succeeded by his grandson George III as king of England.
1760/--/-- 4 - The British under Amherst capture Montreal, ending French resistance in North America.
1760/--/-- 4 - The Russians invade Prussia and burn Berlin.
1761/--/-- 5 - Franz Josef Haydn becomes court composer to Prince Esterhazy.
1761/09/02 6 - George III crowned King of Great Britain and Ireland at Westminster Abbey by Tho
1762/--/-- 6 - American Indian religious leader, the Delaware Prophet, is active in the Ohio Valley.
1762/--/-- 6 - Britain seizes Cuba and the Philippines from Spain.
1762/--/-- 6 - British animal painter George Stubbs completes the Horse Attacked by a Lion.
1762/--/-- 6 - Catherine II (Catherine the Great) succeeds her husband as empress of Russia.
1762/--/-- 6 - France cedes Louisiana to Spain to prevent British control of the region.
1762/--/-- 6 - French philosopher Rousseau publishes The Social Contract and Emile.
1762/--/-- 6 - Peter III succeeds Elizabeth as emperor of Russia, but is deposed and murdered.
1762/--/-- 6 - The Russians end their alliance with Austria against Prussia.
1762/--/-- 6 - Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart performs at the Imperial court in Vienna at age 6.
1763/--/-- 7 - Augustus III dies; he is succeeded (1764) by Stanislaw II, the last king of Poland.
1763/--/-- 7 - Britain returns Cuba and the Philippines to Spain in exchange for Florida.
1763/--/-- 7 - France cedes Canada and all territories east of the Mississippi River to Britain.
1763/--/-- 7 - France recognizes British dominance in India.
1763/--/-- 7 - French forces withdraw from Germany; Prussia retains Silesia.
1763/--/-- 7 - James Boswell meets Samuel Johnson for the first time.
1763/--/-- 7 - The Ottawa chief Pontiac leads an uprising against the British.
1763/--/-- 7 - The Treaty of Paris ends the Seven Years' War and the French and Indian Wars.
1763/--/-- 7 - The Wahhabi Saudis begin to establish control over Arabia.
1764/--/-- 8 *** Bristow, James [Uncle] - Died
1764/--/-- 8 - German historian Johann Winckelmann publishes his History of the Art of Antiquity.
1764/--/-- 8 - Thomas Chatterton forges the Rowley poems at the age of 12.
1765/--/-- 9 - Francis I dies; he is succeeded by Joseph II as Holy Roman Emperor.
1765/--/-- 9 - French artist Francois Boucher is appointed court painter to Louis XV.
1765/--/-- 9 - George Grenville's Stamp Act imposes a tax on all publications in the American colonies.
1765/--/-- 9 - Horace Walpole publishes his Gothic novel The Castle of Otranto.
1765/--/-- 9 - Lancelot Capability Brown designs the gardens at Blenheim Palace.
1765/--/-- 9 - Robert Clive is appointed governor of Bengal in India.
1765/--/-- 9 - Samuel Adams helps to found the Sons of Liberty to oppose the Stamp Act.
1765/--/-- 9 - Sir William Blackstone begins his Commentaries on the Laws of England.
1766/--/-- 10 - Anglo-Irish author Oliver Goldsmith publishes The Vicar of Wakefield.
1766/--/-- 10 - English chemist Henry Cavendish isolates hydrogen gas for the first time.
1766/--/-- 10 - French artist Jean Honore Fragonard paints The Swing.
1766/--/-- 10 - German dramatist and critic Gotthold Ephraim Lessing publishes Laocoon.
1766/--/-- 10 - The Declaratory Act imposes Parliament's right to make laws in the colonies.
1766/--/-- 10 - The Nautical Almanac provides the first practical method for determining longitude.
1766/--/-- 10 - The Stamp Act is repealed after strong opposition from American colonists.
1767/--/-- 11 *** Powell, Margaret (Bristow) & Bristow, William [1st cousin once removed] - Married
1767/--/-- 11 - German composer Christoph Willibald Gluck writes his opera Alceste.
1767/--/-- 11 - German-Jewish philosopher Moses Mendelssohn publishes Phaedon.
1767/--/-- 11 - The Burmese destroy the Siam capital of Ayutthaya; the Bangkok Period begins.
1767/--/-- 11 - The Mason-Dixon line establishes the Pennsylvania-Maryland boundary.
1767/--/-- 11 - The Townshend Acts impose a tax on imports to North America.
1768/--/-- 12 - Genoa sells its rights in Corsica to France.
1768/--/-- 12 - Joshua Reynolds becomes the first president of the Royal Academy in London.
1768/--/-- 12 - Louis Antoine de Bougainville claims the Pacific island of Tahiti for France.
1768/--/-- 12 - The Russo-Turkish War is renewed.
1768/--/-- 12 - The first weekly numbers of the Encyclopaedia Britannica are issued.
1769/--/-- 13 - American pioneer Daniel Boone explores a route through the Cumberland Gap.
1769/--/-- 13 - French forces in Corsica defeat Pasquale Paoli; Corsica becomes a province of France.
1769/--/-- 13 - James Watt patents a condenser to improve the performance of steam engines.
1769/--/-- 13 - Ottawa Indian chief Pontiac is assassinated by a Peoria Indian.
1769/--/-- 13 - Richard Arkwright invents a spinning frame to mechanize cotton weaving.
1769/--/-- 13 - The Comtesse du Barry becomes the official mistress to Louis XV.
1769/--/-- 13 - The Gurkhas conquer Nepal.
1770/--/-- 14 - A brawl between British troops and colonists leads to the Boston Massacre.
1770/--/-- 14 - British explorer James Bruce discovers the source of the Blue Nile.
1770/--/-- 14 - English artist Thomas Gainsborough paints The Blue Boy.
1770/--/-- 14 - English navigator James Cook explores New Zealand and the east coast of Australia.
1770/--/-- 14 - Lord North becomes prime minister of Britain.
1770/--/-- 14 - Louis, the future king of France, marries Marie Antoinette.
1770/--/-- 14 - The British Parliament repeals the Townshend Acts.
1770/--/-- 14 - Thomas Jefferson begins building Monticello, his house in Virginia.
1771/--/-- 15 - Governor Tyron defeats the Regulators (dissident farmers) in North Carolina.
1771/--/-- 15 - Gustav III succeeds his father as king of Sweden.
1772/--/-- 16 - American artist Benjamin West paints The Death of Wolfe.
1772/--/-- 16 - English artist Joshua Reynolds paints a Portrait of Samuel Johnson.
1772/--/-- 16 - Poland is partitioned among Russia, Prussia and Austria.
1773/--/-- 17 - American colonists throw British tea into Boston Harbor during the Boston Tea Party.
1773/--/-- 17 - Anglo-Irish author Oliver Goldsmith writes the play She Stoops to Conquer.
1773/--/-- 17 - Calcutta is established as the capital of British India.
1773/--/-- 17 - Don Cossack Yemelian Pugachev leads the Peasant's Revolt in Russia.
1773/--/-- 17 - Pope Clement XIV persecutes the Jesuits.
1774/--/-- 18 - Britain passes the Intolerable Acts and closes the port of Boston.
1774/--/-- 18 - British scientist Joseph Priestley discovers oxygen.
1774/--/-- 18 - Edmund Burke's speech On American Taxation defends the colony's rights.
1774/--/-- 18 - Johann Wolfgang von Goethe publishes The Sorrows of Young Werther.
1774/--/-- 18 - Louis XV dies; he is succeeded by his grandson Louis XVI as king of France.
1774/--/-- 18 - Rhode Island becomes the first state to abolish slavery.
1774/--/-- 18 - The Quebec Act grants religious liberty to Roman Catholics in Canada.
1774/--/-- 18 - The Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji ends the Russo-Turkish War.
1774/--/-- 18 - The first Continental Congress meets and condemns Britain's Intolerable Acts.
1774/--/-- 18 - Warren Hastings is appointed as the first Governor-General of British India.
1775/--/-- 19 - American patriot Patrick Henry states "Give me liberty, or give me death."
1775/--/-- 19 - Americans under Montgomery occupy Montreal, but fail to capture Quebec.
1775/--/-- 19 - British troops and colonial militia clash at Lexington, starting the American Revolution.
1775/--/-- 19 - British troops suffer heavy losses at the Battle of Bunker Hill.
1775/--/-- 19 - French dramatist Caron de Beaumarchais writes the Barber of Seville.
1775/--/-- 19 - Paul Revere rides to Lexington to warn of approaching British troops.
1775/--/-- 19 - Revolutionary War Begins
1775/--/-- 19 - The Continental Congress chooses George Washington to head the Continental Army.
1776/--/-- 20 - American General Charles Lee is captured by the British.
1776/--/-- 20 - Ann Lee establishes a Shaker community at Wartervliet in New York.
1776/--/-- 20 - British forces are evacuated from Boston.
1776/--/-- 20 - British forces under Sir Henry Clinton bombard Charleston harbor.
1776/--/-- 20 - Charles Burney publishes the first volume of A General History of Music.
1776/--/-- 20 - David Bushnell's submarine the Turtle makes an abortive attack on British ships.
1776/--/-- 20 - Economist Adam Smith publishes the Wealth of Nations.
1776/--/-- 20 - Edward Gibbon publishes the first volume of Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
1776/--/-- 20 - Grigory Aleksandrovich Potemkin organizes the Russian Black Sea fleet.
1776/--/-- 20 - Howe defeats Washington at White Plains; Washington retreats across the Delaware.
1776/--/-- 20 - Nathan Hale is executed by the British as a spy.
1776/--/-- 20 - Swiss banker Jacques Necker is appointed director of the treasury by Louis XVI.
1776/--/-- 20 - The British under Howe defeat Washington on Long Island and occupy New York.
1776/--/-- 20 - The Continental Congress adopts the Declaration of Independence.
1776/--/-- 20 - The Sturm und Drang (Storm and Stress) literary movement begins in Germany.
1776/--/-- 20 - Thomas Paine publishes his Revolutionary War pamphlet Common Sense.
1776/--/-- 20 - Washington defeats British forces at Trenton and Princeton (1777).
1777/--/-- 21 - Burgoyne capitulates to Horatio Gates' American forces at Saratoga.
1777/--/-- 21 - Christianity is introduced into Korea.
1777/--/-- 21 - French chemist Lavoisier proves that air is composed of oxygen and nitrogen.
1777/--/-- 21 - General Burgoyne captures Ticonderoga and defeats the Americans in Pennsylvania.
1777/--/-- 21 - Richard Brinsley Sheridan's comedy The School for Scandal is produced.
1777/--/-- 21 - The British under Howe capture Philadelphia, forcing Congress to flee.
1777/--/-- 21 - The British under Howe defeat Washington's Continental Army at Brandywine Creek.
1777/--/-- 21 - The Continental Congress adopts the Stars and Stripes as the American flag.
1777/--/-- 21 - The Marquis de Lafayette offers his services to the Continental Congress.
1777/--/-- 21 - Washington's Continental Army spends a hard winter at Valley Forge.
1778/--/-- 22 - English novelist Fanny Burney writes Evelina.
1778/--/-- 22 - France enters the American War of Independence in support of the colonies.
1778/--/-- 22 - Franz Anton Mesmer opens a Paris practice to treat patients using magnetism.
1778/--/-- 22 - John Singleton Copley paints Watson and the Shark.
1778/--/-- 22 - La Scala opera house opens in Milan, Italy.
1778/--/-- 22 - Portugal transfers its rights in Equatorial Guinea to Spain.
1778/--/-- 22 - Washington clashes with British forces under Clinton at Monmouth, N.J.
1779/--/-- 23 - American forces under Sullivan campaign against the Iroquois on the New York border.
1779/--/-- 23 - An American squadron led by John Paul Jones attacks British shipping.
1779/--/-- 23 - British explorer James Cook is killed by natives on Hawaii.
1779/--/-- 23 - George Rogers Clark recaptures Vincennes from the British.
1779/--/-- 23 - Samuel Crompton develops his spinning mule for England's cotton industry.
1779/--/-- 23 - Samuel Johnson begins writing The Lives of the Poets
1779/--/-- 23 - Spain declares war on Britain and lays siege to Gibraltar.
1779/--/-- 23 - War breaks out between Dutch settlers and the Xhosas in South Africa.
1780/--/-- 24 - Americans under Horatio Gates are defeated by Cornwallis at Camden, S.C.
1780/--/-- 24 - Andre's capture exposes Benedict Arnold's plot to surrender West Point.
1780/--/-- 24 - English spy John Andre is caught and executed by the Americans.
1780/--/-- 24 - Francis Marion and Thomas Sumter lead guerrilla forces against the British.
1780/--/-- 24 - Luigi Galvani begins experiments on the effect of electricity on nerves and muscles.
1780/--/-- 24 - Maria Theresa dies; Joseph II inherits the crown of Bohemia and Hungary.
1780/--/-- 24 - Peruvian Indians under Tupac Amaru revolt against Spainish rule.
1780/--/-- 24 - The British under Clinton occupy Charleston, S.C. and capture the garrison.
1780/--/-- 24 - The Derby horse race is established in England.
1780/--/-- 24 - The Gordon Riots begin in London against Catholic emancipation.
1780/--/-- 24 - Venetian artist Francesco Guardi paints the Gondola on the Lagoon.
1781/--/-- 25 - American forces under Daniel Morgan defeat the British at the Battle of Cowpens.
1781/--/-- 25 - English astronomer William Herschel discovers the planet Uranus.
1781/--/-- 25 - German philosopher Immanuel Kant publishes his Critique of Pure Reason.
1781/--/-- 25 - The British defeat Hyder Ali the Muslim ruler of Mysore (now Karnataka) in India.
1781/--/-- 25 - The British under Cornwallis surrender to the Americans at Yorktown.
1781/--/-- 25 - The French aid Washington in the siege of Yorktown.
1782/--/-- 26 - Henry Grattan's Patriot party achieves legislative independence for Ireland.
1782/--/-- 26 - Kamehameha I begins a ten-year war for control of Hawaii.
1782/--/-- 26 - Peace talks open in Paris between Britain and America.
1782/--/-- 26 - Pierre Choderlos de Laclos writes Les Liaisons Dangereuses.
1782/--/-- 26 - Rama I founds the Chakkri dynasty in Siam (Thailand) with Bangkok as its capital.
1782/--/-- 26 - The design for the Great Seal of the United States is adopted by the Continental Congress.
1782/--/-- 26 - Tippu Sultan succeeds his father as ruler of Mysore (now Karnataka) in India.
1783/--/-- 27 - An earthquake kills 30,000 people at Calabria in Italy.
1783/--/-- 27 - Britain cedes all lands west to Mississippi River
1783/--/-- 27 - Britain recognizes the independence of the United States at the Treaty of Paris.
1783/--/-- 27 - British forces abandon New York, their last stronghold in North America.
1783/--/-- 27 - French scientist Jacques Charles demonstrates the first hydrogen-inflated balloon.
1783/--/-- 27 - Peace Treaty ends Revolutionary War
1783/--/-- 27 - Revolutionary War Ends
1783/--/-- 27 - Russia gains control of the Crimea after three centuries of Turkish rule.
1783/--/-- 27 - The British return Florida to Spain under the terms of the Treaty of Paris.
1783/--/-- 27 - The Montgolfier brothers make the first manned flight in a hot air balloon.
1783/--/-- 27 - William Pitt (the Younger) becomes prime minister of Britain at age 24.
1783/--/-- 27 - William Pitt II becomes English Prime Minister at 24
1784/--/-- 28 *** Bristow, Jedediah [Father] - Died Buckingham, Virginia
1784/--/-- 28 - American inventor Oliver Evans develops the first automated flour mill.
1784/--/-- 28 - Ben Franklin invents bifocal eyeglasses
1784/--/-- 28 - French dramatist Caron de Beaumarchais writes the Marriage of Figaro.
1784/--/-- 28 - French neoclassical artist Jacques Louis David paints The Oath of Horatii.
1784/--/-- 28 - Grigory Shelekhov founds the first Russian colony in America at Kodiak Island, Alaska.
1784/--/-- 28 - Thomas Jefferson's proposes a ban on slavery in the western territories.
1785/--/-- 29 - English poet William Cowper publishes The Task.
1785/--/-- 29 - French navigator La Perouse sails to the Pacific to find the Northwest Passage.
1785/--/-- 29 - Jean Pierre Blanchard makes the first balloon flight across the English Channel.
1785/--/-- 29 - New York City becomes the temporary capital of the United States.
1785/--/-- 29 - Newspaper publisher John Walter founds The Times of London.
1786/--/-- 30 - Daniel Shays leads a rebellion against the state government in Massachusetts.
1786/--/-- 30 - First ice cream made commercially in NYC
1786/--/-- 30 - Francisco de Goya becomes court painter to Charles III of Spain.
1786/--/-- 30 - Frederick II dies; he is succeeded by his son Frederick William II as king of Prussia.
1786/--/-- 30 - Lord Cornwallis succeeds Warren Hastings as governor-general of India.
1786/--/-- 30 - Robert Burns publishes Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish dialect.
1786/--/-- 30 - Shay's Rebellion, MASS
1786/--/-- 30 - Singapore, Penang and Melaka are ceded to Britain as the Straits Settlements.
1786/--/-- 30 - Swiss climbers make the first ascent of Mount Blanc.
1787/--/-- 31 - Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison write the first Federalist essays.
1787/--/-- 31 - American inventor John Fitch launches a steam-powered ferry boat on the Delaware.
1787/--/-- 31 - Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart writes the opera Don Giovanni.
1787/--/-- 31 - British reformer William Wilberforce declares his aims to abolish slavery.
1787/--/-- 31 - Constitutional Convention
1787/--/-- 31 - Henry Holland builds the first Royal Pavilion at Brighton for the Prince Regent.
1787/--/-- 31 - Royall Tyler's The Contrast becomes the first stage comedy to be produced in the U.S.
1787/--/-- 31 - The Assembly of Notables is summoned by Louis XVI to reform French taxation.
1787/--/-- 31 - The British found Freetown and establish Sierra Leone as a colony for freed slaves.
1787/--/-- 31 - The Constitutional Convention meets in Philadelphia to draw up a U.S. Constitution.
1787/--/-- 31 - The Continental Congress excludes slavery from the Northwest Territory.
1787/--/-- 31 - The Marylebone Cricket Club (M.C.C.) is formed in London, England.
1787/--/-- 31 - Turkey declares war on Russia, beginning a new Russo-Turkish War.
1788/--/-- 32 - "The Federalist" published
1788/--/-- 32 - A crop failure in France leads to bread riots.
1788/--/-- 32 - Austria joins Russia in the war against Turkey.
1788/--/-- 32 - Captain Arthur Phillip founds the first Australian penal colony at Sydney Cove.
1788/--/-- 32 - Constitution ratified
1788/--/-- 32 - French physicist Lagrange publishes his Analytical Mechanics.
1788/--/-- 32 - George III of England has his first attack of mental illness.
1788/--/-- 32 - Mozart composes 3 symphonies: E-flat, G minor and Jupiter in less than 7 weeks.
1788/--/-- 32 - Swedish forces under Gustav III attack Russia.
1788/--/-- 32 - Warren Hastings is impeached for maladministration in India.
1789/--/-- 33 - A National Assembly is declared in France, ending the power of the States-General.
1789/--/-- 33 - Alexander Hamilton becomes the first U.S. secretary of the treasury.
1789/--/-- 33 - Austrian forces capture Belgrade from the Turks.
1789/--/-- 33 - Bill of Rights adopted
1789/--/-- 33 - English poet and artist William Blake publishes Songs of Innocence.
1789/--/-- 33 - French Revolution begins
1789/--/-- 33 - French sculptor Jean Antoine Houdon makes busts of Jefferson and Washington.
1789/--/-- 33 - George Washington (Federalist) becomes president of the United States
1789/--/-- 33 - Jeremy Bentham publishes An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation.
1789/--/-- 33 - Louis XVI is forced to capitulate; France becomes a constitutional monarchy.
1789/--/-- 33 - Mutinous sailors seize H.M.S. Bounty and take refuge on Pitcairn Island.
1789/--/-- 33 - The Federalist party is formed by supporters of the ratification of the U.S. Constitution.
1789/--/-- 33 - The French National Assembly formulates a Declaration of the Rights of Man.
1789/--/-- 33 - The French Revolution begins with an attack on the Bastille.
1789/--/-- 33 - The Supreme Court of the United States is founded with John Jay as Chief Justice.
1789/--/-- 33 - The Tammany Hall political organization is founded in New York.
1789/--/-- 33 - The first national Thanksgiving Day is celebrated in the U.S.
1789/--/-- 33 - Tippu Sultan begins the Third Mysore War against the British in India.
1789/--/-- 33 - Washington is elected as the first U.S. president; John Adams becomes vice-president.
1789/--/-- 33 - Wm. Blake publishes "Songs of Innocence"
1790/--/-- 34 - Leopold II succeeds Joseph II as Holy Roman Emperor.
1790/--/-- 34 - New England captains extend whaling into the Pacific Ocean about this time.
1790/--/-- 34 - Philadelphia replaces New York as the temporary capital of the U.S.
1790/--/-- 34 - Seat of government moves from NYC to Philadelphia
1790/--/-- 34 - Sweden and Russia sign a peace treaty.
1790/--/-- 34 - The New York Stock Exchange is founded.
1790/--/-- 34 - The bolero Spanish dance is introduced about this time.
1790/--/-- 34 - Thomas Jefferson proposes a decimal (metric) system; Congress rejects the suggestion.
1791/--/-- 35 - Austria returns Belgrade to the Turks.
1791/--/-- 35 - Chinese author Ts'ao Hsueh-ch'in publishes The Dream of the Red Chamber.
1791/--/-- 35 - Emperor Joseph II ends the war between Austria and Turkey.
1791/--/-- 35 - James Boswell publishes his Life of Samuel Johnson.
1791/--/-- 35 - Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette are captured while trying to leave France.
1791/--/-- 35 - Marquis de Sade writes the novel Justine from his prison cell.
1791/--/-- 35 - Miami Indian chief Little Turtle defeats an American force under General Arthur St. Clair.
1791/--/-- 35 - Mozart's opera The Magic Flute is performed for the first time.
1791/--/-- 35 - Pierre Charles L'Enfant designs the new U.S. capital of Washington, D.C.
1791/--/-- 35 - The Bill of Rights (the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution) is ratified.
1791/--/-- 35 - The First Bank of the United States is founded.
1791/--/-- 35 - The Province of Quebec is divided into Upper Canada and Lower Canada.
1791/--/-- 35 - Thomas Paine publishes The Rights of Man in defense of the French revolution.
1791/--/-- 35 - Thomas Sheraton publishes The Cabinet Maker and Upholsterer's Drawing Book.
1791/--/-- 35 - Tom Paine "The Rights of Man"
1791/--/-- 35 - Toussaint l'Ouverture leads a slave revolt in Haiti against the French.
1791/--/-- 35 - Vermont becomes the 14th state of the Union.
1792/--/-- 36 - Architect James Hoban wins the competition to design the White House.
1792/--/-- 36 - Charles Bulfinch designs the Connecticut State House (now Hartford City Hall).
1792/--/-- 36 - First U.S. Trade Union of shoemakers
1792/--/-- 36 - France declares war on Austria and Prussia, beginning the French Revolutionary Wars.
1792/--/-- 36 - Francis II succeeds Leopold II to become the last Holy Roman Emperor.
1792/--/-- 36 - George Washington is reelected as president.
1792/--/-- 36 - German philosopher Fichte writes an Essay toward a Critique of All Revelations.
1792/--/-- 36 - Gustav III of Sweden is assassinated at a masquerade in Stockholm.
1792/--/-- 36 - Jefferson leads the Democratic-Republican party in opposition to the Federalists.
1792/--/-- 36 - Kentucky becomes the 15th state of the Union.
1792/--/-- 36 - Mary Wollstonecraft publishes A Vindication of the Rights of Women.
1792/--/-- 36 - New insurrections begin in France; Louis XVI is imprisoned by the Commune of Paris.
1792/--/-- 36 - Russia and Prussia invade Poland, which is still recovering from the Partition of 1772.
1792/--/-- 36 - Swiss scientist Aime Argand develops a practical oil lamp using a tubular wick.
1792/--/-- 36 - The Columbia River is discovered by Boston trader Robert Gray.
1792/--/-- 36 - The French Republic adopts the guillotine as a uniform method of execution.
1792/--/-- 36 - The French under Dumouriez halt the Prussians and defeat the Austrians at Jemappes.
1792/--/-- 36 - The National Convention proclaims France a Republic.
1792/--/-- 36 - The Treaty of Jasso ends the Russo-Turkish War.
1792/--/-- 36 - The dollar is selected as the U.S. unit of currency.
1792/--/-- 36 - Thomas Paine publishes the Rights of Man and is outlawed for treason in England.
1793/--/-- 37 - Britain, Holland, Spain and Sardinia form a new anti-French coalition.
1793/--/-- 37 - Eli Whitney invents cotton gin; revives dying slave economy of South
1793/--/-- 37 - Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin.
1793/--/-- 37 - France adopts the metric system of measurement.
1793/--/-- 37 - France raises the first national army of conscripts to oppose the Coalition forces.
1793/--/-- 37 - French King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette executed
1793/--/-- 37 - French revolutionary Jean Paul Marat is murdered by Charlotte Corday.
1793/--/-- 37 - Fugitive Slave Act
1793/--/-- 37 - George Washington lays the cornerstone for the Capitol building in Washington D.C.
1793/--/-- 37 - J.-L. David paints "The Dead Marat"
1793/--/-- 37 - Jean Pierre Blanchard makes the first U.S. balloon flight in Philadelphia.
1793/--/-- 37 - Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette are executed; the Reign of Terror begins in France.
1793/--/-- 37 - Russia and Prussia seize Polish lands as part of the Second Partition of Poland.
1794/--/-- 38 - Ann Ward Radcliffe publishes her gothic novel The Mysteries of Udolpho.
1794/--/-- 38 - French engineer Claude Chappe invents the semaphore signaling system.
1794/--/-- 38 - Jay's Treaty settles disputes between Britain and the U.S.
1794/--/-- 38 - Militia under General Henry Lee suppress the Whiskey Rebellion in Pennsylvania.
1794/--/-- 38 - Robespierre's execution ends the Reign of Terror in France; the Thermidorian Reaction begins.
1794/--/-- 38 - Tadeusz Kosciuszko leads a revolt of Polish peasants against Russia.
1794/--/-- 38 - The British occupy the French island of Corsica for a two-year period.
1794/--/-- 38 - The Qajar (Kajar) dynasty is founded in Persia (Iran).
1794/--/-- 38 - U.S. forces under Anthony Wayne defeat the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers.
1795/--/-- 39 - American artist Charles Wilson Peale paints the Staircase group.
1795/--/-- 39 - Austrian composer Franz Josef Haydn completes the 12 London symphonies.
1795/--/-- 39 - France claims the island of Hispaniola.
1795/--/-- 39 - Napoleon Bonaparte defeats the insurrectionists in Paris.
1795/--/-- 39 - Prussia and Spain sue for peace with France.
1795/--/-- 39 - Scottish explorer Mungo Park reaches the Gambia and Niger Rivers.
1795/--/-- 39 - Scottish geologist James Hutton publishes his Theory of the Earth.
1795/--/-- 39 - Spain recognizes U.S. claims to West Florida (Mississippi).
1795/--/-- 39 - Stanislaw II abdicates as the last king of Poland.
1795/--/-- 39 - The British capture Cape Province (South Africa) from the Dutch.
1795/--/-- 39 - The Constitution of 1795 establishes a Directory to rule France.
1795/--/-- 39 - The Methodists separate from the Church of England.
1795/--/-- 39 - The final Partition of Poland is made among Russia, Prussia and Austria.
1796/--/-- 40 - English novelist Fanny Burney publishes Camilla.
1796/--/-- 40 - English physician Edward Jenner develops vaccination against smallpox.
1796/--/-- 40 - George Washington declines to serve as president for a third term.
1796/--/-- 40 - Gilbert Stuart paints a portrait of Washington (used later on the dollar bill).
1796/--/-- 40 - John Adams is elected as the 2nd U.S. president; Jefferson becomes vice-president.
1796/--/-- 40 - Napoleon defeats the Austrian and Sardinian armies in Italy.
1796/--/-- 40 - Napoleon marries Josephine, the widow of the vicomte de Beauharnais.
1796/--/-- 40 - Napoleon restores Corsica to French rule.
1796/--/-- 40 - Samuel Hahnemann publishes his findings on homeopathic treatment.
1796/--/-- 40 - Spain sides with France in the war against Britain.
1796/--/-- 40 - Tennessee becomes the 16th state of the Union.
1796/--/-- 40 - The British seize Ceylon (Sri Lanka) from the Dutch.
1797/--/-- 41 - Austria cedes the Austrian Netherlands (present-day Belgium) to France.
1797/--/-- 41 - British wood engraver Thomas Bewick publishes A History of British Birds.
1797/--/-- 41 - David Thompson surveys the Mississippi headwaters for the North West Company.
1797/--/-- 41 - John Adams (Federalist) becomes president of the United States
1797/--/-- 41 - Nelson defeats the Spanish fleet at Cape St. Vincent, and the Dutch at Camperdown.
1797/--/-- 41 - The British capture the Spanish colony of Trinidad.
1797/--/-- 41 - The Directory appoint Talleyrand as minister of foreign affairs for France.
1797/--/-- 41 - The Treaty of Campo Formio ends the war of the First Coalition against France.
1797/--/-- 41 - The Venetian Republic is dissolved; Venice is ruled by Austria.
1798/--/-- 42 - Alien and Sedition Act
1798/--/-- 42 - America's first professional author Charles Brockden Brown publishes Wieland.
1798/--/-- 42 - Britain, Austria, Russia and Turkey form a Second Coalition against France.
1798/--/-- 42 - Economist Thomas Malthus publishes An Essay on the Principle of Population.
1798/--/-- 42 - Eli Whitney uses early mass production techniques to manufacture muskets.
1798/--/-- 42 - French armies occupy Rome and invade Switzerland, creating the Helvetic Republic.
1798/--/-- 42 - Haydn composes "The Creation"
1798/--/-- 42 - Lord Wellesley becomes governor-general of India.
1798/--/-- 42 - Napoleon's army invades Egypt and defeats the Mamelukes at the Battle of the Pyramids.
1798/--/-- 42 - The French fleet is destroyed by Nelson at Abukir Bay, cutting off Napoleon's forces in Egypt.
1798/--/-- 42 - The U.S. Congress passes the controversial Alien and Sedition Acts.
1798/--/-- 42 - The XYZ Affair leads to the Quasi War between France and the U.S.
1798/--/-- 42 - The territory of Mississippi becomes part of the United States.
1798/--/-- 42 - William Wordsworth publishes Lyrical Ballads with Samuel Taylor Coleridge.
1798/--/-- 42 - Wolfe Tone leads a revolt against the British by the Society of United Irishmen.
1798/04/-- 42 *** Bristow, William [1st cousin once removed] - Died Patrick County Virginia USA
1799/--/-- 43 - A 33,000 year-old frozen mammoth is discovered at the Lena River in Russia.
1799/--/-- 43 - Britain becomes the first nation to introduce a national income tax.
1799/--/-- 43 - City Hotel, the first American structure designed as a hotel, opens in New York.
1799/--/-- 43 - Humboldt and Bonpland begin their scientific expedition in South American.
1799/--/-- 43 - Napoleon attacks Syria to prevent a Turkish invasion of Egypt, but is defeated at Acre.
1799/--/-- 43 - Napoleon becomes Consul
1799/--/-- 43 - Napoleon returns to France as first consul; the Consulate replaces the Directory.
1799/--/-- 43 - Ranjit Singh establishes a Sikh kingdom in northwest India.
1799/--/-- 43 - Russian forces under Suvorov defeat the French in Italy, but are held at Zurich.
1799/--/-- 43 - The Rosetta Stone, the key to deciphering hieroglyphics, is discovered in Egypt.
1799/--/-- 43 - The Russian-American Company is founded to administer the Alaskan fur trade.
1799/--/-- 43 - Tippu Sultan is killed in battle with the British; the Mysore empire is destroyed.
1800/--/-- 44 - Black slave Gabriel leads an abortive uprising near Richmond, Virginia.
1800/--/-- 44 - France regains Louisiana from Spain under the secret Treaty of San Ildefonso.
1800/--/-- 44 - Italian physicist Alessandro Volta invents the first electric battery.
1800/--/-- 44 - Jefferson defeats Adams in the U.S. presidential election, but ties with Burr.
1800/--/-- 44 - Johnny Appleseed (John Chapman) arrives in the Ohio River valley around this time.
1800/--/-- 44 - Library of Congress founded
1800/--/-- 44 - Madame de Stael publishes The Influence of Literature Upon Society.
1800/--/-- 44 - Napoleon commissions Cambaceres to develop the Napoleonic Code of law.
1800/--/-- 44 - Napoleon defeats the Austrians at the Battle of Marengo.
1800/--/-- 44 - Seat of government moves from Philadelphia to Washington, DC
1800/--/-- 44 - The Library of Congress is founded in Washington D.C.
1800/--/-- 44 - The seat of U.S. government is transferred to Washington, D.C.
1800/--/-- 44 - Volta invents electric battery
1801/--/-- 45 *** Bristow, John [1st cousin] - Died Pleasant Hill, Tazewell, Virginia
1801/--/-- 45 - Alexander I becomes emperor of Russia after the murder of his father Paul I.
1801/--/-- 45 - Barbary pirates begin the Tripolitan War; a U.S. squadron sails to the Mediterranean.
1801/--/-- 45 - Castlereagh secures passage of the Act of Union, which unites Britain and Ireland.
1801/--/-- 45 - Chemists Proust and Berthollet debate the constancy of chemical composition.
1801/--/-- 45 - Jefferson is selected as the 3rd U.S. president; Burr becomes vice-president.
1801/--/-- 45 - Nelson defeats the Danish fleet at Copenhagen.
1801/--/-- 45 - Robert Fulton demonstrates his 3-man submarine the Nautilus.
1801/--/-- 45 - The British defeat Napoleon's army of Egypt at Alexandria.
1801/--/-- 45 - The Peace of Luneville ends the war between France and Austria.
1801/--/-- 45 - The Union Jack becomes the official flag of the United Kingdom.
1801/--/-- 45 - Thomas Jefferson (Democratic Republican) becomes president of the United States
1802/--/-- 46 - Alexander von Humboldt climbs Mt. Chimborazo, setting a world height record.
1802/--/-- 46 - American artist Benjamin West paints Death on a Pale Horse.
1802/--/-- 46 - Britain returns the island of Minorca to Spain.
1802/--/-- 46 - Napoleon is created First Consul for life.
1802/--/-- 46 - The French capture Haitian leader Toussaint, but are defeated by Christophe.
1802/--/-- 46 - The Treaty of Amiens brings a temporary halt to the French Revolutionary Wars.
1803/--/-- 47 - Britain declares war on France, beginning the Napoleonic Wars.
1803/--/-- 47 - Britain establishes a new penal colony on Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania).
1803/--/-- 47 - Dalton devises table of elements
1803/--/-- 47 - English scientist John Dalton describes his atomic theory.
1803/--/-- 47 - France sells Louisiana to the U.S.
1803/--/-- 47 - Matthew Flinders completes the first circumnavigation of Australia.
1803/--/-- 47 - Ohio is inaugurated as the l7th state of the Union.
1803/--/-- 47 - Robert Emmet leads an Irish rebellion in Dublin; he is captured and executed.
1804/--/-- 48 - American politician Aaron Burr kills Alexander Hamilton in a duel.
1804/--/-- 48 - Dessalines declares Haitian independence and names himself Emperor Jacques I.
1804/--/-- 48 - English engineer Richard Trevithick builds the first steam locomotive.
1804/--/-- 48 - Francis II assumes the title of emperor of Austria.
1804/--/-- 48 - Fulani leader Usman dan Fodio leads a holy war against the Hausa in Nigeria.
1804/--/-- 48 - Jefferson is reelected as U.S. president; Clinton becomes vice-president.
1804/--/-- 48 - Lewis and Clark expedition encounters Native Americans
1804/--/-- 48 - Lewis and Clarke Expedition
1804/--/-- 48 - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark begin exploring the American north-west.
1804/--/-- 48 - Napoleon becomes Emperor
1804/--/-- 48 - Napoleon crowns himself emperor of France.
1804/--/-- 48 - Serbian nationalists revolt against the Turks.
1804/--/-- 48 - Stephen Decatur leads a U.S. navy skirmish into Tripoli harbor.
1805/--/-- 49 - American explorers Lewis and Clark reach the Pacific Ocean.
1805/--/-- 49 - Austria sues for peace with France at the Treaty of Pressburg.
1805/--/-- 49 - Britain, Austria, Russia and Sweden form a Third Coalition against France.
1805/--/-- 49 - Muhammad Ali is appointed Pasha (governor) of Egypt by the Ottoman sultan.
1805/--/-- 49 - Nelson defeats the Franco-Spanish fleet at Trafalgar, but is killed during the action.
1805/--/-- 49 - The French defeat Austro-Russian forces at the Battle of Austerlitz.
1805/--/-- 49 - The Shawnee Prophet, brother of Tecumseh, begins planning an Indian uprising.
1806/--/-- 50 - Emperor Jacques I is assassinated; Haiti is divided between Christophe and Petion.
1806/--/-- 50 - Napoleon begins the Continental System, closing European ports to British vessels.
1806/--/-- 50 - Napoleon forces the abdication of Francis II; the Holy Roman Empire is dissolved.
1806/--/-- 50 - Noah Webster publishes "Compendious" Dictionary of the English Language"
1806/--/-- 50 - Prussia joins the Coalition against France, but is defeated at Jena-Auerstadt.
1806/--/-- 50 - Revolutionary leader Francisco de Miranda makes an abortive invasion of Venezuela.
1806/--/-- 50 - The British employ Congreve rockets against a French invasion fleet.
1806/--/-- 50 - U.S. explorer Zebulon Pike is sent west to descend the Red River.
1806/--/-- 50 - William Murdock installs gas lighting in a Manchester cotton mill.
1807/--/-- 51 - Aaron Burr is tried for treason and acquitted.
1807/--/-- 51 - Beethoven completes his Fifth Symphony and begins the Sixth (Pastoral).
1807/--/-- 51 - British chemist Humphry Davy discovers the elements potassium and sodium.
1807/--/-- 51 - Congress passes the Embargo Act in response to interference with U.S. shipping.
1807/--/-- 51 - German philosopher Hegel publishes The Phenomenology of the Spirit.
1807/--/-- 51 - Napoleon defeats the Russian armies; Russia and Prussia sue for peace at Tilsit.
1807/--/-- 51 - Portugal refuses to observe the blockade against England; France invades Portugal.
1807/--/-- 51 - Robert Fulton's steamship the Clermont makes its maiden voyage.
1807/--/-- 51 - Sir Humphry Davy discovers the elements potassium and sodium
1807/--/-- 51 - The Janissaries depose Sultan Selim III and place Mustafa IV on the Ottoman throne.
1807/--/-- 51 - The U.S. frigate Chesapeake is involved in an incident with a British man-of-war.
1807/--/-- 51 - The slave trade is outlawed throughout the British Empire.
1808/--/-- 52 - Beethoven composes "Fifth Symphony"
1808/--/-- 52 - Congress prohibits importing of African slaves
1808/--/-- 52 - Francisco de Goya paints The Third of May, depicting the cruelty of war.
1808/--/-- 52 - French chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac isolates the element boron.
1808/--/-- 52 - German artist Caspar David Friedrich exhibits The Cross in the Mountains.
1808/--/-- 52 - Japanese artist Buncho paints True View of Mount Hiko.
1808/--/-- 52 - John Jacob Astor founds the American Fur Company.
1808/--/-- 52 - Napoleon appoints his brother Joseph as king of Spain.
1808/--/-- 52 - Napoleon occupys Spain
1808/--/-- 52 - The British under Wellington aid Portugal against France in the Peninsular War.
1809/--/-- 53 - Frenchman Nicolas Appert develops the first effective method for canning food.
1809/--/-- 53 - German artists Overbeck and Pforr found the Nazarenes.
1809/--/-- 53 - James Madison (Democratic Republican) becomes president of the United States
1809/--/-- 53 - John Stevens' steamboat the Phoenix makes the first ocean-going voyage.
1809/--/-- 53 - Lamarck publishes his theories of evolution in Zoological Philosophy.
1809/--/-- 53 - Metternich draws Austria into the War of the Fifth Coalition against France.
1809/--/-- 53 - Napoleon annexes the Papal States and takes Pope Pius VII prisoner.
1809/--/-- 53 - Russia seizes Finland from Sweden; King Gustav IV Adolf abdicates.
1809/--/-- 53 - The French defeat the Austrians at Wagram; Francis II accepts the Treaty of Schonbrunn.
1810/--/-- 54 - A rebellion against Spain breaks out in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
1810/--/-- 54 - American settlers rebel against the Spanish in West Florida.
1810/--/-- 54 - Kamehameha I becomes ruler of Hawaii and establishes the Kamehameha dynasty.
1810/--/-- 54 - Mexican priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla leads a rebellion against Spanish rule.
1810/--/-- 54 - Revolutions in Latin America lead to independent nations
1810/--/-- 54 - Separatists movements in Latin America
1810/--/-- 54 - The Krupp arms factory is established at Essen in Germany.
1810/--/-- 54 - Wellington's Anglo-Portuguese army holds the French on the outskirts of Lisbon.
1811/--/-- 55 - Bolivar and Miranda lead the Venezuelan congress in a declaration of independence.
1811/--/-- 55 - First steamboat to sail down Mississippi reaches New Orleans
1811/--/-- 55 - George III becomes mentally unstable; the Prince of Wales assumes power as regent.
1811/--/-- 55 - Henri Christophe declares himself king of northern Haiti.
1811/--/-- 55 - Italian chemist Amedeo Avogadro develops the concept known as Avogadro's law.
1811/--/-- 55 - Jane Austen "Sense and Sensibility"
1811/--/-- 55 - Jose Artigas raises a force to expel the Spanish from the Banda Oriental (Uruguay).
1811/--/-- 55 - Mexican rebel leader Hidalgo y Costilla is captured and executed.
1811/--/-- 55 - Native Americans defeated in Battle of Tippecanoe in Indiana Territory
1811/--/-- 55 - The Luddites riot in England against the mechanization of the textile industry.
1811/--/-- 55 - The building of the National Road, the first U.S. federal highway, begins in Maryland.
1811/--/-- 55 - The first rowing race in the United States is held in New York.
1811/--/-- 55 - The ruling Mameluke aristocracy is massacred in Cairo by Muhammad Ali.
1811/--/-- 55 - William Henry Harrison defeats the Shawnee Indians at the Battle of Tippecanoe.
1812/--/-- 56 - An earthquake destroys Caracas in Venezuela, killing 12,000.
1812/--/-- 56 - English caricaturist Thomas Rowlandson illustrates the Tour of Dr. Syntax.
1812/--/-- 56 - General William Hull surrenders Detroit to the British.
1812/--/-- 56 - Georges Cuvier develops his theory of catastrophism through the study of fossils.
1812/--/-- 56 - Grimm's Fairy Tales are published in Germany.
1812/--/-- 56 - John Nash begins the oriental conversion of the Royal Pavilion at Brighton.
1812/--/-- 56 - Louisiana is inaugurated as the 18th state of the Union.
1812/--/-- 56 - Napoleon defeated in Russia
1812/--/-- 56 - Napoleon invades Russia with 450,000 men.
1812/--/-- 56 - Napoleon's army retreats from Moscow; only 40,000 men reach France.
1812/--/-- 56 - Rebel leader Morelos y Pavon defeats the Mexican royalist forces at Oaxaca.
1812/--/-- 56 - Spanish forces defeat Bolivar and Miranda in Venezuela; Miranda is imprisoned.
1812/--/-- 56 - Stephen Decatur's frigate United States defeats the British frigate Macedonian.
1812/--/-- 56 - Swiss explorer Jakob Burckhardt rediscovers the ancient city of Petra.
1812/--/-- 56 - Territorial and shipping disputes lead to the War of 1812 between the U.S. and Britain.
1812/--/-- 56 - The French defeat the Russians at Borodino; Napoleon occupies Moscow.
1812/--/-- 56 - The U.S. Navy frigate Constitution defeats 2 British frigates.
1812/--/-- 56 - The ancient city of Petra (now in present-day Jordan) is rediscovered by Johann Burckhardt.
1812/--/-- 56 - The first coal gas generating station is chartered in London to provide gas lighting.
1812/--/-- 56 - War of 1812 Begins
1812/--/-- 56 - Wellington defeats the French at the Battle of Salamanca in Spain.
1813/--/-- 57 - 14 Luddites are hanged at York in England.
1813/--/-- 57 - English novelist Jane Austen publishes Pride and Prejudice.
1813/--/-- 57 - James Wilkinson captures a fort at Mobile, the last Spanish possession in West Florida.
1813/--/-- 57 - Napoleon is defeated at the Battle of Leipzig by the Sixth Coalition.
1813/--/-- 57 - Oliver Hazard Perry's ships destroy the British fleet on Lake Erie.
1813/--/-- 57 - British Indian leader Tecumseh is killed in the Battle of the Thames.
1813/--/-- 57 - Rebel forces invade Venezuela and capture Caracas; Bolivar is declared the Liberator.
1813/--/-- 57 - Robert Southey is made poet laureate of England.
1813/--/-- 57 - Wellington defeats the French in Spain at Vitoria and invades southern France.
1813/--/-- 57 - William Henry Harrison defeats the British at the Battle of the Thames.
1814/--/-- 58 - Actor Edmund Kean makes his debut as Shylock in The Merchant of Venice.
1814/--/-- 58 - Andrew Jackson annihilates the Creek Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
1814/--/-- 58 - Andrew Jackson crushes Creek Resistance in South
1814/--/-- 58 - British forces burn Washington, D.C., but are repulsed at Fort McHenry.
1814/--/-- 58 - Coalition armies invade France; Napoleon abdicates and is exiled to the island of Elba.
1814/--/-- 58 - French artist Ingres paints The Grand Odalisque.
1814/--/-- 58 - George Stephenson constructs his first steam locomotive.
1814/--/-- 58 - Louis XVIII assumes the French throne.
1814/--/-- 58 - New England states discuss their secession from the Union at the Hartford Convention.
1814/--/-- 58 - Pope Pius VII returns to Rome; the Jesuit order is reestablished.
1814/--/-- 58 - The Treaty of Ghent ends the War of 1812 between the U.S. and Britain.
1814/--/-- 58 - Treaty of Ghent
1814/--/-- 58 - U.S. forces under Thomas Macdonough destroy the British fleet on Lake Champlain.
1815/--/-- 59 - French Monarchy re-established
1815/--/-- 59 - Napoleon escapes from Elba and marches on Paris during the Hundred Days.
1815/--/-- 59 - Napoleon is defeated at the Battle of Waterloo; he is exiled to the island of Saint Helena.
1815/--/-- 59 - The Americans defeat the British at New Orleans before news of peace arrives.
1815/--/-- 59 - The Barbary States sue for peace with the U.S.
1815/--/-- 59 - The Spanish army reconquers Venezuela; Bolivar flees to Jamaica.
1815/--/-- 59 - The Spanish capture and execute the Mexican rebel leader Morelos y Pavon.
1815/--/-- 59 - The first Gurkha regiment is formed by the British army.
1815/--/-- 59 - War of 1812 Ends
1816/--/-- 60 - Gioacchino Rossini's opera The Barber of Seville is performed in Rome.
1816/--/-- 60 - Indiana is inaugurated as the 19th state of the Union.
1816/--/-- 60 - Maria I of Portugal dies; she is succeeded by John VI who remains in exile in Brazil.
1816/--/-- 60 - Nepal is made a protectorate of British India.
1816/--/-- 60 - Shaka begins establishing the Zulu empire in South Africa.
1816/--/-- 60 - The British Museum buys the Elgin Marbles (smuggled from Greece by Lord Elgin).
1816/--/-- 60 - The United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata (Argentina) declare independence.
1817/--/-- 61 - Construction begins on Erie Canal in New York
1817/--/-- 61 - Construction of the Erie Canal begins in New York State.
1817/--/-- 61 - First Seminole War
1817/--/-- 61 - French physician Rene Laennec invents the stethoscope.
1817/--/-- 61 - James Monroe (Democratic Republican) becomes president of the United States
1817/--/-- 61 - Jose de San Martin and Bernardo O'Higgins defeat the Spanish in Chile.
1817/--/-- 61 - Mississippi is inaugurated as the 20th state of the Union.
1817/--/-- 61 - Monroe is inaugurated as the 5th U.S. president; Tompkins becomes vice-president.
1817/--/-- 61 - Sir Walter Scott writes the Scottish adventure novel Rob Roy.
1818/--/-- 62 - Arthur Schopenhauer publishes The World as Will and Representation.
1818/--/-- 62 - Bernardo O'Higgins becomes the supreme director of independent Chile.
1818/--/-- 62 - Composer Franz Schubert becomes the music teacher to Count Esterhazy's family.
1818/--/-- 62 - English chemist Sir Humphry Davy invents the miner's safety lamp.
1818/--/-- 62 - Illinois is inaugurated as the 21st state of the Union.
1818/--/-- 62 - John Keats "Endymion"
1818/--/-- 62 - Mary Wollstonecroft Shelley publishes the horror novel Frankenstein.
1818/--/-- 62 - Sir John Ross sails in search of the Northwest Passage.
1818/--/-- 62 - Thomas Love Peacock publishes his comic novel Nightmare Abbey.
1818/--/-- 62 - Treaty with Britain sets 49th parallel
1819/--/-- 63 - Alabama is inaugurated as the 22nd state of the Union.
1819/--/-- 63 - American artist Washington Allston paints Moonlit Landscape.
1819/--/-- 63 - Bolivar defeats the Spanish in Colombia at the Battle of Boyaca.
1819/--/-- 63 - Lord Byron begins his satirical poem Don Juan.
1819/--/-- 63 - Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles acquires Singapore for the East India Company.
1819/--/-- 63 - Spain surrenders East and West Florida to the U.S. in the Adams-Onis Treaty.
1819/--/-- 63 - The Prado Museum is inaugurated in Madrid.
1819/--/-- 63 - The Savannah becomes the first steamship to cross the Atlantic.
1819/--/-- 63 - Treaty with Spain sets boundaries
1820/--/-- 64 - Carbonari Italian nationalists rebel against the rule of Ferdinand I in Naples.
1820/--/-- 64 - English poet John Keats writes Ode To a Nightingale.
1820/--/-- 64 - English poet Percy Bysshe Shelley writes Prometheus Unbound.
1820/--/-- 64 - Fed offers land at $1.25 an acre
1820/--/-- 64 - French navigator Dumont d'Urville discovers the Venus de Milo on the island of Melos.
1820/--/-- 64 - French poet Alphonse de Lamartine publishes Meditations Poetiques.
1820/--/-- 64 - Henri Christophe commits suicide; Haiti is united under Jean Pierre Boyer.
1820/--/-- 64 - Juan Manuel de Rosas becomes the virtual dictator of Argentina.
1820/--/-- 64 - Maine is inaugurated as the 23rd state of the Union.
1820/--/-- 64 - Missouri Compromise
1820/--/-- 64 - Percy Bysshe Shelly "Prometheus Unbound"
1820/--/-- 64 - Russian Admiral Fabian von Bellingshausen sights land in the Antarctic.
1820/--/-- 64 - Stephen H. Long explores the Rocky Mountain region.
1820/--/-- 64 - The Missouri Compromise admits Missouri to the Union as a slave state.
1820/--/-- 64 - The Prince Regent becomes King George IV on the death of George III.
1820/--/-- 64 - The first American missionaries are admitted to Hawaii.
1820/--/-- 64 - The first free American slaves to be resettled in Africa land in Liberia.
1820/--/-- 64 - U.S. navy hero Stephen Decatur is killed in a duel.
1820/--/-- 64 - Washington Irving publishes Rip Van Winkle and The Legend of Sleepy Hollow.
1821/--/-- 65 - American captain John Davis is the first to land on the continent of Antarctica.
1821/--/-- 65 - Bolivar forms Gran Colombia (Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela and Panama).
1821/--/-- 65 - Brazil annexes the Banda Oriental (Uruguay).
1821/--/-- 65 - English landscape artist John Constable paints The Hay Wain.
1821/--/-- 65 - King John VI is reinstated on the Portuguese throne.
1821/--/-- 65 - Mexican Independence
1821/--/-- 65 - Michael Faraday discovers electromagnetic rotation
1821/--/-- 65 - Missouri Compromise
1821/--/-- 65 - Missouri is inaugurated as the 24th state of the Union.
1821/--/-- 65 - Napoleon dies on Saint Helena.
1821/--/-- 65 - Revolutionary general San Martin enters Lima and declares Peru independent.
1821/--/-- 65 - Revolutionary leader Iturbide declares Mexican independence from Spain.
1821/--/-- 65 - Simon Bolivar defeats the Spanish forces in Venezuela and Ecuador.
1821/--/-- 65 - The Cherokee Indian Sequoya develops the Cherokee written language.
1821/--/-- 65 - The Greek War of Independence begins against Turkey.
1821/--/-- 65 - Thomas de Quincey's Confessions of an English Opium Eater is published.
1821/07/09 66 - George IV crowned King of Great Britain and Ireland at Westminster Abbey by Char
1822/--/-- 66 - American surgeon William Beaumont begins his study of the gastric process.
1822/--/-- 66 - Antonio Jose de Sucre defeats the Spanish in Ecuador at the Battle of Pichincha.
1822/--/-- 66 - British statesman Lord Castlereagh commits suicide.
1822/--/-- 66 - Denmark Vesey leads a slave revolt in Charleston; 35 blacks are executed.
1822/--/-- 66 - Dom Pedro, son of Portuguese King John VI, declares Brazil independent.
1822/--/-- 66 - Egyptian leader Muhammad Ali completes the conquest of northern Sudan.
1822/--/-- 66 - French scholar Jean Francois Champollion deciphers the Rosetta Stone hieroglyphics.
1823/--/-- 67 - Charles Babbage begins work on his difference engine, a precursor of the computer.
1823/--/-- 67 - Charles Lamb publishes his Essays of Elia in The London Magazine.
1823/--/-- 67 - Charles Macintosh patents the waterproof fabric used in mackintosh raincoats.
1823/--/-- 67 - General Santa Anna leads a coup against Mexican Emperor Agustin I (Iturbide).
1823/--/-- 67 - James Fenimore Cooper publishes the first volume of The Leatherstocking Tales.
1823/--/-- 67 - Japanese artist Hokusai begins a series of Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji.
1823/--/-- 67 - Ludwig van Beethoven completes his 9th Symphony.
1823/--/-- 67 - Monroe Doctrine
1823/--/-- 67 - Rugby football originates at Rugby School in England.
1823/--/-- 67 - The Monroe Doctrine warns Europe not to interfere in the Americas.
1824/--/-- 68 - De Sucre defeats the Spanish at the Battle of Ayacucho, liberating Peru.
1824/--/-- 68 - Disputes over the border of India lead to war between Britain and Burma.
1824/--/-- 68 - English poet Lord Byron travels to Greece to aid the patriots but dies of a fever.
1824/--/-- 68 - Jons Jakob Berzelius discovers the element silicon about this time.
1824/--/-- 68 - Sadi Carnot lays the foundations for the second law of thermodynamics.
1824/--/-- 68 - The Ashanti begin a war of resistance against Britain in the Gold Coast (Ghana).
1824/--/-- 68 - The Ashanti begin a war of resistance against Britain in the Gold Coast (Ghana).
1824/--/-- 68 - The National Gallery is founded in London.
1825/--/-- 69 - Adams is inaugurated as the 6th U.S. president; Calhoun becomes vice-president.
1825/--/-- 69 - American painter Thomas Cole founds the Hudson River School about this time.
1825/--/-- 69 - English literary critic William Hazlitt publishes The Spirit of the Age.
1825/--/-- 69 - John Quincy Adams (Democratic Republican) becomes president of the United States
1825/--/-- 69 - Kappa Alpha, the first social fraternity, is formed at Union College, New York.
1825/--/-- 69 - Mountain man James Bridger discovers the Great Salt Lake.
1825/--/-- 69 - Nicholas I is made emperor of Russia; the Decembrists revolt breaks out.
1825/--/-- 69 - The Central American Federation declares its independence from Mexico.
1825/--/-- 69 - Thomas Cole establishes Hudson River school of landscape painting
1825/--/-- 69 - Uruguayan leader Lavalleja precipitates a war between Brazil and Argentina.
1825/--/-- 69 - Welsh reformer Robert Owen founds a community at New Harmony, Indiana.
1826/--/-- 70 - American engineer John Stevens builds the first U.S. steam locomotive.
1826/--/-- 70 - Andre Ampere publishes his Theory of Electrodynamic Phenomenon.
1826/--/-- 70 - British engineer Thomas Telford builds the Menai suspension bridge in Wales.
1826/--/-- 70 - Felix Mendelssohn composes his overture to A Midsummer Night's Dream at age 17.
1826/--/-- 70 - German poet Heine begins the publication of Reisebilder (Travel Pictures).
1826/--/-- 70 - Ohm's law establishes the relationship of electrical voltage, current and resistance.
1826/--/-- 70 - Revolutionary leader Antonio Jose de Sucre is elected first president of Bolivia.
1827/--/-- 71 - American frontiersman Davy Crockett is elected to Congress.
1827/--/-- 71 - Audubon publishes " Birds of America"
1827/--/-- 71 - Britain, France and Russia demand that Turkey ends the war with Greece.
1827/--/-- 71 - English inventor John Walker introduces the first friction matches.
1827/--/-- 71 - French landscape artist Camille Corot paints the Bridge at Narni.
1827/--/-- 71 - Mountain man Jedediah Smith pioneers an overland route to California.
1827/--/-- 71 - Ornithologist John James Audubon begins the publication of his Birds of America.
1827/--/-- 71 - The Allied navies destroy the Turkish and Egyptian fleet at Navarino in Greece.
1828/--/-- 72 - Composer Frederic Chopin begins concert tours at age 18.
1828/--/-- 72 - Greeks win War of Independence from Ottoman Empire
1828/--/-- 72 - Lavalleja's Thirty-three Immortals achieve Uruguayan independence from Brazil.
1828/--/-- 72 - Noah Webster publishes his American Dictionary of the English Language.
1828/--/-- 72 - Rammohun Roy founds the Brahmo Samaj religious society in India.
1828/--/-- 72 - The Duke of Wellington becomes prime minister of Britain.
1828/--/-- 72 - Virtuoso violin player Niccolo Paganini performs in Vienna.
1829/--/-- 73 - Andrew Jackson (Democrat) becomes president of the United States
1829/--/-- 73 - Delacroix paints "Death of Sardanapalus"
1829/--/-- 73 - Explorer Charles Sturt charts the Murray River in Australia.
1829/--/-- 73 - Jackson introduces spoils system
1829/--/-- 73 - Jackson is inaugurated as the 7th U.S. president; Calhoun continues as vice-president.
1829/--/-- 73 - Lord Bentinck bans the Indian custom of suttee (the burning of widows).
1829/--/-- 73 - Louis Braille publishes his braille system of writing for the blind.
1829/--/-- 73 - Serbia becomes an autonomous principality under Prince Milos.
1829/--/-- 73 - Sir Robert Peel reorganizes the London police; his policemen are nicknamed Bobbies.
1829/--/-- 73 - Sir Robert Peel sponsers the Catholic Emancipation Act in Britain.
1829/--/-- 73 - The convict-free British colony of Western Australia is founded.
1829/--/-- 73 - The first U.S. encyclopedia, the Encyclopedia Americana, is begun.
1830/--/-- 74 - Belgium asserts its independence from the Netherlands.
1830/--/-- 74 - British geologist Charles Lyell begins publishing his Principles of Geology.
1830/--/-- 74 - Fructuoso Rivera is elected as first president of Uruguay.
1830/--/-- 74 - George Catlin begins his paintings of North American Indians about this time.
1830/--/-- 74 - Greece becomes independent from Turkey.
1830/--/-- 74 - Hector Berlioz composes his first major work the Symphonie Fantastique.
1830/--/-- 74 - Indian Removal Act moves eastern Indians west of Mississippi
1830/--/-- 74 - Joseph Smith founds the Mormon church at Fayette, New York.
1830/--/-- 74 - Louis Philippe is chosen as the citizen king of France.
1830/--/-- 74 - Philipon publishes the satirical weekly La Caricature, with contributions by Daumier.
1830/--/-- 74 - Polish rebellions are suppressed by Russia.
1830/--/-- 74 - Simon Bolivar resigns as dictator of Gran Colombia, he dies later in the year.
1830/--/-- 74 - The Indian Removal Act is passed to move the southeastern tribes to Indian Territory.
1830/--/-- 74 - The July Revolution in France forces the abdication of Charles X.
1830/--/-- 74 - The Women's magazine Godey's Lady's Book is published in the U.S.
1830/--/-- 74 - The locomotive Best Friend of Charleston is in use on the first U.S. railroad.
1830/--/-- 74 - William IV succeeds George IV as king of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
1831/--/-- 75 - British naturalist Charles Darwin sails to South America aboard H.M.S. Beagle.
1831/--/-- 75 - Cyrus McCormick invents a mechanical reaper.
1831/--/-- 75 - Explorer James Clark Ross determines the position of the north magnetic pole.
1831/--/-- 75 - Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini founds the Young Italy movement.
1831/--/-- 75 - Jose Antonio Paez becomes the first president of Venezuela.
1831/--/-- 75 - King Louis Philippe founds the French foreign legion.
1831/--/-- 75 - Leopold I is selected as the first king of Belgium.
1831/--/-- 75 - Michael Faraday demonstrates his theory of electromagnetic induction.
1831/--/-- 75 - Nat Turner leads a black slave revolt in Virginia; he is captured and hanged.
1831/--/-- 75 - Russian poet Aleksandr Pushkin completes his masterpiece Eugene Onegin.
1831/--/-- 75 - The crown colony of British Guiana (Guyana) is formed.
1831/--/-- 75 - Victor Hugo "Hunchback of Notre Dame"
1831/--/-- 75 - William Lloyd Garrison publishes the abolitionist newspaper the Liberator.
1832/--/-- 76 - George Sand (Aurore Dudevant) publishes her first novel Indiana.
1832/--/-- 76 - Japanese artist Hiroshige begins work on Fifty-three Stages of the Tokaido.
1832/--/-- 76 - Samuel F.B. Morse designs improved electromagnetic telegraph
1832/--/-- 76 - The Black Hawk War is the last major Indian conflict east of the Mississippi River.
1832/--/-- 76 - The Democratic party is formally established as a national organization.
1833/--/-- 77 - A Bavarian prince becomes King Otto of Greece.
1833/--/-- 77 - Britain occupies the Falkland Islands.
1833/--/-- 77 - Carl von Clausewitz's classic study of warfare On War is published.
1833/--/-- 77 - General Santa Anna becomes president of Mexico.
1833/--/-- 77 - Isabella II succeeds Ferdinand VII, King of Spain; the Carlist Wars begin.
1833/--/-- 77 - President Jackson withdraws federal deposits from the Bank of the United States.
1833/--/-- 77 - Santa Anna elected President of Mexico
1833/--/-- 77 - The American Anti-Slavery Society is inaugurated in Philadelphia.
1833/--/-- 77 - Victor Hugo's novel The Hunchback of Notre Dame is published in English.
1834/--/-- 78 - A Quadruple Alliance is formed to aid Isabella II of Spain and Maria II of Portugal.
1834/--/-- 78 - American inventor Jacob Perkins patents the first practical ice-making machine.
1834/--/-- 78 - British politician Sir Robert Peel founds the Conservative Party.
1834/--/-- 78 - Indian Territory founded
1834/--/-- 78 - Slavery abolished in British Empire
1834/--/-- 78 - The Carlist Wars resume in Spain.
1834/--/-- 78 - The Hansom cab is designed; it becomes the standard horse-drawn cab in London.
1834/--/-- 78 - The Whig party is formed to oppose Andrew Jackson and the Democratic party.
1835/--/-- 79 - American settlers begin the Texas Revolution against Mexican rule.
1835/--/-- 79 - Attempts to move the Seminole Indians begins the second Seminole War.
1835/--/-- 79 - Danish writer Hans Christian Andersen publishes Tales Told for Children.
1835/--/-- 79 - French politician Alexis de Tocqueville publishes Democracy in America.
1835/--/-- 79 - James Gordon Bennett founds the New York Herald newspaper.
1835/--/-- 79 - Second Seminole War in Florida
1836/--/-- 80 - American educator William Holmes McGuffey begins editing his Readers.
1836/--/-- 80 - American inventor Samuel Colt begins manufacturing the first revolver.
1836/--/-- 80 - American literary figure Ralph Waldo Emerson founds the Transcendental Club.
1836/--/-- 80 - Arkansas is inaugurated as the 25th state of the Union.
1836/--/-- 80 - Boer (Afrikaner) settlers begin the Great Trek into the South African interior.
1836/--/-- 80 - Bolivian president Santa Cruz invades Peru and forms the Peru-Bolivian Confederation.
1836/--/-- 80 - Charles Barry designs Westminster Palace in the Gothic Revival style.
1836/--/-- 80 - Charles Dickens publishes his first popular work The Pickwick Papers.
1836/--/-- 80 - John C. Calhoun supports the gag rules to prevent Congress debating slavery.
1836/--/-- 80 - Republic of Texas forms
1836/--/-- 80 - Russian author Nikolai Gogol writes his play The Inspector General.
1836/--/-- 80 - Santa Anna's army storms the Alamo in Texas, killing the defenders.
1836/--/-- 80 - Texans under Sam Houston defeat Santa Anna at the San Jacinto River.
1836/--/-- 80 - Texas Revolution
1836/--/-- 80 - The Arc de Triomphe, the world's largest triumphal arch, is completed in Paris.
1837/--/-- 81 - Britain's refusal to grant more home rule in Canada leads to the Rebellions of 1837.
1837/--/-- 81 - British scientist Charles Wheatstone designs an electric telegraph system.
1837/--/-- 81 - Charles Dickens "Oliver Twist"
1837/--/-- 81 - Louis Daguerre invents the daguerreotype method for taking permanent photographs.
1837/--/-- 81 - Martin Van Buren (Democrat) becomes president of the United States
1837/--/-- 81 - Michigan is inaugurated as the 26th state of the Union.
1837/--/-- 81 - Mikhail Lermontov writes the Death of a Poet, inspired by the death of Pushkin.
1837/--/-- 81 - Russian poet Aleksandr Pushkin is killed in a duel.
1837/--/-- 81 - Scottish historian Thomas Carlyle publishes The French Revolution.
1837/--/-- 81 - Seminole Indian leader Osceola is captured.
1837/--/-- 81 - Van Buren is inaugurated as the 8th U.S. president; Johnson becomes vice-president.
1837/--/-- 81 - William IV dies; Victoria succeeds him as Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
1837/06/-- 82 - Victoria succeeds as Queen of Great Britain and Ireland.
1838/--/-- 82 - Boer (Afrikaner) leader Andries Pretorius defeats the Zulus at the Battle of Blood River.
1838/--/-- 82 - British artist Joseph Mallord William Turner paints the Fighting Temeraire.
1838/--/-- 82 - Charles Wilkes heads a U.S. Navy expedition to Antarctica.
1838/--/-- 82 - Cherokee "Trail of Tears"
1838/--/-- 82 - French philosopher Auguste Comte inaugurates the science of sociology.
1838/--/-- 82 - Iowa Territory organized
1838/--/-- 82 - John Deere develops a steel-tipped plow capable of turning heavy prairie soil.
1838/--/-- 82 - Samuel F.B. Morse develops the Morse code for electric telegraph systems.
1838/--/-- 82 - Scottish blacksmith Kirkpatrick Macmillan makes the first pedal-driven bicycle.
1838/06/08 83 - Victoria crowned Queen of Great Britain and Ireland at Westminster Abbey by Will
1839/--/-- 83 - American inventor Charles Goodyear develops the vulcanization of rubber.
1839/--/-- 83 - Chile defeats Santa Cruz's Peru-Bolivian Confederation at the Battle of Yungay.
1839/--/-- 83 - Daguerre invents first form of photography
1839/--/-- 83 - French novelist Stendhal writes The Charterhouse of Parma.
1839/--/-- 83 - Hungarian composer and pianist Franz Liszt embarks on a concert tour of Europe.
1839/--/-- 83 - Jose Rafael Carrera captures Guatemala; the Central American Federation is dissolved.
1839/--/-- 83 - Stephens and Catherwood explore Maya ruins in the Yucatan.
1839/--/-- 83 - The Anglo-Afghan Wars begin in Afghanistan.
1839/--/-- 83 - The Opium Wars begin between Britain and China.
1839/--/-- 83 - Theodor Schwann and Matthias Jakob Schleiden formulate the cell theory.
1840/--/-- 84 - Civil War breaks out in Uruguay between the Colorados (reds) and Blancos (whites).
1840/--/-- 84 - Edgar Allen Poe: "Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque"
1840/--/-- 84 - French philosopher and anarchist Pierre Joseph Proudhon writes What is Property.
1840/--/-- 84 - Horatio Greenough's classical statue of George Washington is strongly criticized.
1840/--/-- 84 - Maori chiefs sign over their tribal lands to Queen Victoria in the Treaty of Waitangi.
1840/--/-- 84 - Queen Victoria marries Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg.
1840/--/-- 84 - Swiss-American naturalist Louis Agassiz postulates his theory of ice ages.
1840/--/-- 84 - The Liberty party is founded in Albany, N.Y. based exclusively on an antislavery platform.
1840/--/-- 84 - The Underground Railroad is active in helping escaping slaves in the U.S.
1840/--/-- 84 - The first adhesive postage stamp, the Penny Black, is issued in London.
1840/--/-- 84 - The metric system of measurement is reinstated in France.
1840/--/-- 84 - Upper and Lower Canada are united in the single Province of Canada.
1840/--/-- 84 - Upper and lower Canada united
1841/--/-- 85 - Edgar Allan Poe writes an early detective story The Murders in the Rue Morgue.
1841/--/-- 85 - George Grey is appointed governor of South Australia to help save the colony.
1841/--/-- 85 - Harrison is inaugurated as the 9th U.S. president; Tyler becomes vice-president.
1841/--/-- 85 - Horace Greeley founds the New York Tribune newspaper.
1841/--/-- 85 - Italian ballerina Carlotta Grisi creates the role of Giselle.
1841/--/-- 85 - John Tyler (Whig) becomes president of the United States
1841/--/-- 85 - Muhammad Ali defeats the Ottomans and becomes the hereditary ruler of Egypt.
1841/--/-- 85 - New Zealand is established as a separate British colony.
1841/--/-- 85 - President Harrison dies; John Tyler is inaugurated as the 10th U.S. president
1841/--/-- 85 - Whig prime minister Lord Melbourne resigns; he is succeeded by Sir Robert Peel.
1841/--/-- 85 - William Henry Harrison (Whig) becomes president of the United States
1841/--/-- 85 - William Henry Talbot patents the calotype photographic process.
1842/--/-- 86 - 10-hour day for children under 12 in Massachusetts
1842/--/-- 86 - American explorer John C. Fremont begins surveying the Oregon Trail.
1842/--/-- 86 - American showman P.T. Barnum discovers the 40-inch midget Tom Thumb.
1842/--/-- 86 - Austrian physicist Christian Johann Doppler predicts the Doppler effect.
1842/--/-- 86 - China cedes Hong Kong to Britain.
1842/--/-- 86 - China is defeated in the first Opium War; Chinese ports are opened to British trade.
1842/--/-- 86 - Italian composer Gaetano Donizetti writes his opera Don Pasquale.
1843/--/-- 87 - A coup in Greece forces King Otto to accept a constitutional monarchy.
1843/--/-- 87 - Black American Sojourner Truth begins her reform mission.
1843/--/-- 87 - Danish philosopher Soren Kierkegaard publishes Either/Or.
1843/--/-- 87 - English art critic John Ruskin begins publishing Modern Painters.
1843/--/-- 87 - German astronomer Samuel Schwabe discovers the sunspot cycle.
1844/--/-- 88 - Alexander Dumas "The Three Muskateers"
1844/--/-- 88 - Eastern Hispaniola declares independence from Haiti as the Dominican Republic.
1844/--/-- 88 - French author Alexandre Dumas (Dumas pere) publishes The Three Musketeers.
1844/--/-- 88 - Joseph Smith, founder of the Mormons, is killed by a lynch mob.
1844/--/-- 88 - Samuel F.B. Morse establishes the first U.S. telegraph link.
1844/--/-- 88 - Settlers in New South Wales force Britain to stop sending convicts to the colony.
1844/--/-- 88 - The Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) is founded in England.
1844/--/-- 88 - William Henry Talbot begins his Pencil of Nature, the first book of photographs.
1845/--/-- 89 - American author Margaret Fuller publishes Women in the Nineteenth Century.
1845/--/-- 89 - British archaeologist Austen Layard excavates the sites of Nimrud and Nineveh.
1845/--/-- 89 - Civil War ends in Peru; Castilla Ramon is elected as president.
1845/--/-- 89 - Failure of the potato crop leads to a famine in Ireland.
1845/--/-- 89 - Florida is inaugurated as the 27th state of the Union.
1845/--/-- 89 - French artists Gavarni and Grandville begin designing the first elaborate posters.
1845/--/-- 89 - German composer Robert Schumann writes his Piano Concerto in A minor.
1845/--/-- 89 - German scientist Alexander von Humboldt publishes the first volume of his Kosmos.
1845/--/-- 89 - James K. Polk (Democrat) becomes president of the United States
1845/--/-- 89 - Polk is inaugurated as the 11th U.S. president; Dallas becomes vice-president
1845/--/-- 89 - Sir John Franklin leads an ill-fated expedition in search of the Northwest Passage.
1845/--/-- 89 - The Republic of Texas becomes the 28th state of the Union.
1845/--/-- 89 - The Republic of Texas is annexed by the U.S.; it becomes the 28th state of the Union.
1845/--/-- 89 - The Sikh Wars begin in British India.
1845/--/-- 89 - The first clipper ship the Rainbow is built in New York.
1845/--/-- 89 - The term Manifest Destiny is first used in defense of U.S. territorial ambitions.
1846/--/-- 90 - Adolphe Sax patents the saxophone in Paris.
1846/--/-- 90 - American dentist William Morton extracts a tooth using ether as an anesthetic.
1846/--/-- 90 - German astronomer Johann Galle makes the first observation of the planet Neptune.
1846/--/-- 90 - German philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach publishes The Essence of Religion.
1846/--/-- 90 - Henry Creswicke Rawlinson deciphers the Mesopotamian cuneiform script.
1846/--/-- 90 - Iowa is inaugurated as the 29th state of the Union.
1846/--/-- 90 - Mexican War
1846/--/-- 90 - Mormon trek from Navoo to Salt Lake City
1846/--/-- 90 - Oregon boundary with Canada established at 49th parallel
1846/--/-- 90 - The Christy Minstrels begin performing in New York.
1846/--/-- 90 - The Mexican War begins over the U.S. annexation of Texas.
1846/--/-- 90 - The Mexican government collapses; Santa Anna is reelected as president.
1846/--/-- 90 - The Smithsonian Institution is created by Congress.
1846/--/-- 90 - The border between the U.S. and Canada is established, settling the Oregon Question.
1846/--/-- 90 - U.S. forces under Stephen Watts Kearny occupy New Mexico.
1846/--/-- 90 - U.S. forces under Zachary Taylor defeat the Mexicans at Palo Alto and Monterrey.
1846/--/-- 90 - Writer and artist Edward Lear publishes A Book of Nonsense.
1847/--/-- 91 - American missionary Marcus Whitman is killed by Cayuse Indians in Oregon.
1847/--/-- 91 - American oceanographer Matthew Maury publishes his first Wind and Current Charts.
1847/--/-- 91 - Charlotte Bronte publishes Jane Eyre; Emily Bronte publishes Wuthering Heights.
1847/--/-- 91 - English novelist William Makepeace Thackeray begins Vanity Fair.
1847/--/-- 91 - Honore de Balzac completes La Comedie humaine, a collection of over 100 novels.
1847/--/-- 91 - Italian statesman Cavour founds the liberal newspaper Il Risorgimento (resurgence).
1847/--/-- 91 - Maria Mitchell, the first woman astronomer in America, discovers a new comet.
1847/--/-- 91 - Mormons and the Indians
1847/--/-- 91 - Scott enters Mexico City after a series of battles; Mexico sues for peace.
1847/--/-- 91 - Sir James Simpson uses chloroform for childbirth
1847/--/-- 91 - Taylor defeats Santa Anna's Mexican army at the Battle of Buena Vista.
1847/--/-- 91 - The African slave colony of Liberia is declared independent.
1847/--/-- 91 - The American Medical Association is founded.
1847/--/-- 91 - The Mormons under Brigham Young found Salt Lake City.
1847/--/-- 91 - The U.S. post office begins using adhesive postage stamps.
1847/--/-- 91 - U.S. forces under Stockton, Fremont and Kearny occupy California.
1847/--/-- 91 - U.S. forces under Winfield Scott land at Veracruz and advance on Mexico City.
1848/--/-- 92 - A Czech uprising under Frantisek Palacky is suppressed by Austria.
1848/--/-- 92 - American engineer James Bogardus begins using cast-iron for building construction.
1848/--/-- 92 - February Revolution by French workers makes Louis Napoleon III President of 2nd Reublic
1848/--/-- 92 - Ferdinand I abdicates; Francis Joseph becomes Emperor of Austria.
1848/--/-- 92 - French Barbizon artist Theodore Rousseau paints the Forest at Fontainebleau.
1848/--/-- 92 - French author Alexandre Dumas (Dumas fils) publishes his novel Camille.
1848/--/-- 92 - Gold discovered in California
1848/--/-- 92 - Holman Hunt, Millais and Rossetti form the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in Britain.
1848/--/-- 92 - Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish the Communist Manifesto.
1848/--/-- 92 - Karl Marx and Friedrick Engels publish "Communist Manifesto"
1848/--/-- 92 - Louis Philippe abdicates; a Second Republic is declared in France.
1848/--/-- 92 - Mexican Cession
1848/--/-- 92 - Risorgimento leader Garibaldi returns to Italy to fight in the war of independence.
1848/--/-- 92 - Scottish physicist William Thomson Kelvin proposes an absolute temperature scale.
1848/--/-- 92 - The Austrian revolution begins in Vienna; chancellor Metternich resigns.
1848/--/-- 92 - The Revolutions of 1848 break out in Europe.
1848/--/-- 92 - The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ratifies the cession of California and New Mexico.
1848/--/-- 92 - The discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill begins the California gold rush.
1848/--/-- 92 - The first U.S. women's rights assembly meets at the Seneca Falls Convention.
1848/--/-- 92 - Uprisings in Berlin force Frederick William IV to summon a constitutional assembly.
1848/--/-- 92 - Wisconsin is inaugurated as the 30th state of the Union.
1849/--/-- 93 - Amelia Bloomer publicizes bloomers (baggy trousers for women) in the Lily magazine.
1849/--/-- 93 - Austrian forces crush the Italian revolution; Mazzini and Garibaldi flee from Italy.
1849/--/-- 93 - Austrian premier Felix Schwarzenberg uses the Russian army to defeat the Hungarians.
1849/--/-- 93 - Black slave Harriet Tubman escapes and begins her Underground Railway work.
1849/--/-- 93 - Elizabeth Blackwell becomes the first woman to obtain a medical degree.
1849/--/-- 93 - Francois Rene de Chateaubriand publishes Memoirs From Beyond the Tomb.
1849/--/-- 93 - French physicist Armand Fizeau measures the velocity of light.
1849/--/-- 93 - Lajos Kossuth declares Hungarian independence from Austria.
1849/--/-- 93 - Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin is deported to Siberia.
1849/--/-- 93 - Taylor is inaugurated as the 12th U.S. president; Fillmore becomes vice-president
1849/--/-- 93 - Zachary Taylor (Whig) becomes president of the United States
1850/--/-- 94 - Allan Pinkerton founds the Pinkerton National Detective Agency.
1850/--/-- 94 - American author Nathaniel Hawthorne writes The Scarlet Letter.
1850/--/-- 94 - American popular songwriter Stephen Foster publishes Camptown Races.
1850/--/-- 94 - California is inaugurated as the 31st state of the Union.
1850/--/-- 94 - Congress reinforces the Fugitive Slave Law for the return of escaped slaves.
1850/--/-- 94 - Elizabeth Barrett Browning publishes her Sonnets From the Portuguese.
1850/--/-- 94 - English author Charles Dickens writes David Copperfield.
1850/--/-- 94 - French realist artist Gustave Courbet paints The Stone Breakers.
1850/--/-- 94 - Jenny Lind the Swedish nightingale begins her U.S. tour.
1850/--/-- 94 - Millard Fillmore (Whig) becomes president of the United States
1850/--/-- 94 - Nathanial Hawthorne "The Scarlet Letter"
1850/--/-- 94 - Photographer Mathew Brady publishes The Gallery of Illustrious Americans.
1850/--/-- 94 - Plains Indians cede land in exchange for reservations
1850/--/-- 94 - President Taylor dies; Millard Fillmore is inaugurated as the 13th U.S. president.
1850/--/-- 94 - The Compromise of 1850 establishes California as a non-slavery state.
1850/--/-- 94 - The Taiping Rebellion breaks out in China against the Ch'ing dynasty.
1850/--/-- 94 - The first issue of Harper's magazine is published.
1850/--/-- 94 - Utah and New Mexico Territories
1851/--/-- 95 - A gold rush begins in Victoria, Australia; Victoria becomes a separate colony.
1851/--/-- 95 - American author Herman Melville publishes Moby-Dick.
1851/--/-- 95 - Giuseppe Verdi's opera Rigoletto is produced in Venice.
1851/--/-- 95 - Harriet Beecher Stowe begins publishing Uncle Tom's Cabin.
1851/--/-- 95 - Henry Jarvis Raymond and George Jones found the New York Times.
1851/--/-- 95 - Isaac Merrit Singer invents the first practical sewing machine.
1851/--/-- 95 - Jacob Fussell begins making ice cream in commercial quantities in Baltimore.
1851/--/-- 95 - Melville "Moby Dick"
1851/--/-- 95 - Mongkut (Rama IV) becomes king of Siam (Thailand).
1851/--/-- 95 - Singer patents sewing machine
1851/--/-- 95 - The Crystal Palace is built in London to house the Great Exhibition.
1851/--/-- 95 - The U.S. yacht America defeats 17 British yachts in the first America's Cup contest.
1851/--/-- 95 - The first college sorority is established at Wesleyan College, Georgia.
1852/--/-- 96 - Argentinean dictator Rosas is defeated by forces under Urquiza at Monte Caseros.
1852/--/-- 96 - Britain gains control of the Irrawaddy delta after the second Anglo-Burma War.
1852/--/-- 96 - The Grimms begin publication of their Deutsches Worterbuch (German Dictionary).
1852/--/-- 96 - The Second Empire begins in France under Napoleon III.
1853/--/-- 97 - A U.S. naval squadron under Matthew Perry enters Tokyo Bay to negotiate a treaty.
1853/--/-- 97 - Chinese rebels capture Nanking and make it the capital of the Taiping kingdom.
1853/--/-- 97 - Crimean War between Turkey, France & Britain against Russia
1853/--/-- 97 - Franklin Pierce (Democrat) becomes president of the United States
1853/--/-- 97 - Franklin Pierce is inaugurated as the 14th U.S. president; King becomes vice-president.
1853/--/-- 97 - General Santa Anna becomes dictator of Mexico for the last time.
1853/--/-- 97 - Georges Haussmann begins the reconstruction of Paris.
1853/--/-- 97 - Napoleon III marries the Empress Eugenie.
1853/--/-- 97 - Richard Wagner begins his cycle of four operas The Ring of The Nibelung.
1853/--/-- 97 - Russia occupies the Turkish principalities of Moldavia and Walachia.
1853/--/-- 97 - The U.S. adds land to New Mexico and Arizona with the Gadsden Purchase.
1853/--/-- 97 - Turkey issues an ultimatum to Russia; the Russians destroy the Turkish fleet at Sinope.
1854/--/-- 98 - A commercial treaty is signed between the U.S. and Japan, ending Japanese isolation.
1854/--/-- 98 - American writer and naturalist Henry David Thoreau publishes Walden.
1854/--/-- 98 - An Anglo-French-Turkish expeditionary force lands at Sevastopol in the Crimea.
1854/--/-- 98 - Britain and France declare war on Russia, beginning the Crimean War.
1854/--/-- 98 - Nebraska and Kansas Territories
1854/--/-- 98 - Pope Pius IX proclaims the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary.
1854/--/-- 98 - Raphaelite artist Holman Hunt paints The Scapegoat.
1854/--/-- 98 - Republican Party formed for abolition of slavery
1854/--/-- 98 - Smith & Wesson invent revolver
1854/--/-- 98 - The Allied armies defeat the Russians at the Battle of Inkerman.
1854/--/-- 98 - The British grant independence to the Orange Free State in South Africa.
1854/--/-- 98 - The Charge of the Light Brigade is made by the British during the Battle of Balaklava.
1854/--/-- 98 - The Kansas-Nebraska Act reopens the controversy over the spread of slavery.
1854/--/-- 98 - The Republican party is formed after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
1854/--/-- 98 - Upper half of Indian Territory becomes part of Kansas Territory
1855/--/-- 99 - British photographer Roger Fenton documents the Crimean War.
1855/--/-- 99 - Florence Nightingale reforms hygienic standards in Crimean hospitals.
1855/--/-- 99 - Henry Wadsworth Longfellow publishes The Songs of Hiawatha.
1855/--/-- 99 - Lord Palmerston becomes prime minister of Great Britain for the first time.
1855/--/-- 99 - Matthew Fontaine Maury publishes The Physical Geography of the Sea.
1855/--/-- 99 - Mexican dictator Santa Anna is overthrown.
1855/--/-- 99 - Nicholas I, Emperor of Russia dies; he is succeeded by his son Alexander II.
1855/--/-- 99 - Robert Browning publishes his poetry collection Men and Women.
1855/--/-- 99 - Scottish explorer David Livingstone discovers the Victoria Falls in Africa.
1855/--/-- 99 - The Allies occupy the Russian fortress at Sevastapol in the Crimea.
1855/--/-- 99 - The first formal ice hockey game is played in Kingston, Ontario.
1855/--/-- 99 - Walt Whitman publishes his first book of poetry, the Leaves of Grass.
1856/--/-- 100 - A new Opium War begins between China, Britain and France.
1856/--/-- 100 - English chemist William Perkin discovers synthetic dyes.
1856/--/-- 100 - The Treaty of Paris ends the Crimean War.
1856/--/-- 100 - The first Neanderthaler (prehistoric human) skeleton is discovered in Germany.
1856/--/-- 100 - Victor Hugo writes Les Miserables during his exile from France.
1857/--/-- 101 - Buchanan is inaugurated as the 15th U.S. president; Breckinridge becomes vice-president.
1857/--/-- 101 - Disputes between Mormons and non-Mormon settlers leads to the Utah War.
1857/--/-- 101 - Elisha Graves Otis installs the first passenger elevator in a New York City store.
1857/--/-- 101 - English author Thomas Hughes publishes Tom Brown's Schooldays.
1857/--/-- 101 - French novelist Gustave Flaubert publishes Madame Bovary.
1857/--/-- 101 - French poet Baudelaire publishes Flowers of Evil and is arrested for immorality.
1857/--/-- 101 - James Buchanan (Democrat) becomes president of the United States
1857/--/-- 101 - Kansas ratifies anti-slavery constitution
1857/--/-- 101 - Mormons and Paiute Indians kill 120 settlers in the Mountain Meadows Massacre.
1857/--/-- 101 - The Indian Mutiny begins when Indian troops rebel against the British in Meerut.
1857/--/-- 101 - The Oxford English Dictionary is begun in England.
1858/--/-- 102 - Benito Juarez becomes the first Mexican president of Indian descent.
1858/--/-- 102 - Bernadette Soubirous sees visions of the Vigin Mary in a grotto near Lourdes, France.
1858/--/-- 102 - Britain and France impose the Tientsin Treaty on China.
1858/--/-- 102 - British explorer John Hanning Speke discovers Lake Victoria in Africa.
1858/--/-- 102 - British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace outlines his theories of evolution.
1858/--/-- 102 - Charles Frederick Worth establishes his Paris fashion house.
1858/--/-- 102 - Cyrus W. Field lays the first transatlantic telegraph cable.
1858/--/-- 102 - Federal forces end the Utah War; Brigham Young is replaced as governor of Utah Territory.
1858/--/-- 102 - French photographer Nadar takes the first aerial photograph from a balloon.
1858/--/-- 102 - German-American artist Albert Bierstadt begins his landscapes of the American west.
1858/--/-- 102 - Jacques Offenbach's operetta Orpheus in the Underworld premiers in Paris.
1858/--/-- 102 - James Renwick begins the design of Saint Patrick's Cathedral in New York City.
1858/--/-- 102 - Minnesota is inaugurated as the 32nd state of the Union.
1858/--/-- 102 - The Fenians (Irish Republican Brotherhood) are founded to overthrow British rule.
1858/--/-- 102 - The Indian Mutiny is suppressed by the British Army and loyal Indian troops.
1858/--/-- 102 - The government of India is transferred from the East India Company to the British crown.
1859/--/-- 103 - Abolitionist John Brown leads an attack on Harpers Ferry; he is captured and executed.
1859/--/-- 103 - Charles Darwin "Origin of Species"
1859/--/-- 103 - Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection.
1859/--/-- 103 - Ferdinand de Lesseps begins building the Suez Canal in Egypt.
1859/--/-- 103 - French inventor Ferdinand Carre develops a refrigeration system.
1859/--/-- 103 - Napoleon III assists the Italian statesman Cavour in a war against Austria.
1859/--/-- 103 - Oregon is inaugurated as the 33rd state of the Union.
1859/--/-- 103 - Queensland becomes a separate colony of Australia.
1860/--/-- 104 - Abraham Lincoln is elected as the first Republican president of the United States.
1860/--/-- 104 - China resists the Tientsin Treaty; Anglo-French forces occupy Peking.
1860/--/-- 104 - English novelist Wilkie Collins writes The Woman in White.
1860/--/-- 104 - Florence Nightingale establishes a school for training nurses.
1860/--/-- 104 - George Eliot (Mary Anne Evans) publishes The Mill on the Floss.
1860/--/-- 104 - Italian patriot Garibaldi invades Sicily and Naples with his 1,000 Redshirts.
1860/--/-- 104 - Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir patents the first internal-combustion engine.
1860/--/-- 104 - Sardinia-Piedmont seizes the Papal States in Italy.
1860/--/-- 104 - South Carolina becomes the first Southern state to secede from the Union.
1860/--/-- 104 - The Crittenden Compromise tries to prevent a split between slave and free states.
1860/--/-- 104 - The Maori Wars begin against the British in New Zealand.
1860/--/-- 104 - The pony express is inaugurated to deliver mail from Missouri to California.
1861/--/-- 105 - Abraham Lincoln (Republican) becomes president of the United States
1861/--/-- 105 - American locksmith Linus Yale Jr. patents the cylinder lock.
1861/--/-- 105 - CONFEDERACY
1861/--/-- 105 - Civil War Begins
1861/--/-- 105 - English designer William Morris starts the Arts and Crafts Movement.
1861/--/-- 105 - Explorers Burke and Wills die during their north-south crossing of Australia.
1861/--/-- 105 - French artist Eugene Delacroix paints the Lion Hunt.
1861/--/-- 105 - General George B. McClellan is made commander of the Union forces.
1861/--/-- 105 - Italy is unified under Victor Emmanuel II.
1861/--/-- 105 - John Ericsson designs the Monitor, the first ship with a revolving gun-turret.
1861/--/-- 105 - Kansas is inaugurated as the 34th state of the Union.
1861/--/-- 105 - Lincoln is inaugurated as the 16th U.S. president; Hamlin becomes vice-president.
1861/--/-- 105 - Nicholas II abolishes serfdom in Russia.
1861/--/-- 105 - The Confederate States of America declare their independence from the U.S.
1861/--/-- 105 - The Confederates defeat the Union army in the First Battle of Bull Run.
1861/--/-- 105 - The Southern states meet to draft a constitution; Davis is selected as president.
1861/--/-- 105 - The Trent Affair begins when a Union ship intercepts a British steamer.
1861/--/-- 105 - The United States introduce the first national income tax.
1861/--/-- 105 - The bombardment of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor begins the U.S. Civil War.
1861/--/-- 105 - Unification of Italy
1861/--/-- 105 - Western territories reorganized by Republican Congresses
1862/--/-- 106 - A Union fleet under David G. Farragut captures New Orleans.
1862/--/-- 106 - Bartolome Mitre unites Argentina and is elected president.
1862/--/-- 106 - Brady, O'Sullivan and Gardner document the Civil War in photographs.
1862/--/-- 106 - Explorer John McDouall Stuart makes the first south to north crossing of Australia.
1862/--/-- 106 - Foucault measures speed of light
1862/--/-- 106 - French actress Sarah Bernhardt makes her debut at the Comedie Francaise.
1862/--/-- 106 - French impressionist artist Edouard Manet paints Le Dejeuner sur l'Herbe.
1862/--/-- 106 - French physicist Jean Foucault successfully measures the speed of light.
1862/--/-- 106 - French writer Victor Hugo completes his social novel Les Miserables.
1862/--/-- 106 - Lee defeats the Union army in the Second Battle of Bull Run.
1862/--/-- 106 - Lee's Confederate invasion of Maryland is halted at the Battle of Antietam.
1862/--/-- 106 - McClellan is defeated in the Seven Days Battle and retreats from the peninsular.
1862/--/-- 106 - Napoleon III imposes the Austrian prince Maximilian as emperor of Mexico.
1862/--/-- 106 - Richard J. Gatling invents the first practical machine gun.
1862/--/-- 106 - Russian novelist Ivan Turgenev publishes Fathers and Sons.
1862/--/-- 106 - The first recorded ski competition is held near Oslo in Norway.
1862/--/-- 106 - The ironclad warships Monitor and Merrimack clash at Hampton Roads, Va.
1862/--/-- 106 - Union forces under Burnside are defeated at the Battle of Fredricksburg.
1862/--/-- 106 - Union forces under Grant defeat the Confederates at the Battle of Shiloh.
1862/--/-- 106 - Union forces under McClellan begin the Peninsular Campaign to capture Richmond.
1862/--/-- 106 - William I appoints Otto von Bismarck as minister president of Prussia.
1863/--/-- 107 - Cambodia (Kampuchea) becomes a French protectorate.
1863/--/-- 107 - English philosopher John Stuart Mill publishes Utilitarianism.
1863/--/-- 107 - French impressionist artist Camille Pissarro exhibits at the Salon des Refuses.
1863/--/-- 107 - George I succeeds Otto as king of Greece.
1863/--/-- 107 - Grant defeats the Confederates in the Vicksburg Campaign.
1863/--/-- 107 - Ismail Pasha rules Egypt under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire.
1863/--/-- 107 - Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation abolishes slavery in the Confederate states.
1863/--/-- 107 - London's Metropolitan Railway becomes the first underground subway.
1863/--/-- 107 - The Confederate guerrilla band Quantrill's Raiders pillage Lawrence, Kansas.
1863/--/-- 107 - The Confederates defeat the Union army at Chancellorsville; Jackson is killed.
1863/--/-- 107 - The Confederates under Lee are defeated at the Battle of Gettysburg.
1863/--/-- 107 - The French occupy Mexico City in support of Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico.
1863/--/-- 107 - The London Football Association issues the first soccer rules.
1863/--/-- 107 - West Virginia is inaugurated as the 35th state of the Union.
1864/--/-- 108 - A Chinese army under Gordon recaptures Nanking and ends the Taiping Rebellion.
1864/--/-- 108 - A Union army under Sherman invades Georgia, begining the Atlanta campaign.
1864/--/-- 108 - Cheyenne and Arapaho families massacred at Sand Creek, Colorado
1864/--/-- 108 - Denmark is defeated by Prussia; Schleswig-Holstein is ceded to Germany.
1864/--/-- 108 - Nevada is inaugurated as the 36th state of the Union.
1864/--/-- 108 - Paraguayan dictator Francisco Solano Lopez begins the War of the Triple Alliance.
1864/--/-- 108 - Sherman defeats the Confederates at Atlanta and begins his march to the sea.
1864/--/-- 108 - The Colorado militia massacre Cheyenne Indians at Sand Creek.
1864/--/-- 108 - The Confederate submarine Hunley sinks a Federal ship but is sunk in the process.
1864/--/-- 108 - The Geneva Convention sets standards of humane treatment in time of war.
1864/--/-- 108 - The Ionian Islands are ceded to Greece by Britain.
1864/--/-- 108 - The Union launches a drive on Richmond but falters in the Wilderness Campaign.
1864/--/-- 108 - Ulysses S. Grant is made general in chief of all the Union armies.
1865/--/-- 109 - Andrew Johnson (Republican) becomes president of the United States
1865/--/-- 109 - Andrew Johnson becomes the 17th President of the U.S.
1865/--/-- 109 - Civil War Ends
1865/--/-- 109 - Confederate forces under Lee surrender to Grant at Appomattox Court House.
1865/--/-- 109 - Count Leo Tolstoi begins his monumental Russian novel War and Peace.
1865/--/-- 109 - English author Lewis Carroll writes Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.
1865/--/-- 109 - Johnston surrenders the last Confederate army to Sherman, ending the U.S. Civil War.
1865/--/-- 109 - Leo Tolstoy "War and Peace"
1865/--/-- 109 - Lincoln assassinated
1865/--/-- 109 - Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theatre in Washington D.C.
1865/--/-- 109 - Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky publishes Crime and Punishment.
1865/--/-- 109 - The 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution abolishes slavery.
1865/--/-- 109 - The Petersburg Campaign is won by Union forces; Lee evacuates Richmond.
1866/--/-- 110 - British engineer Robert Whitehead invents the first self-propelled torpedo.
1866/--/-- 110 - Congress authorize (but do not mandate) the use of the metric system in the U.S.
1866/--/-- 110 - Mendel publishes his genetic research in Experiments With Plant Hybrids.
1866/--/-- 110 - Prussia and Italy defeat Austria in the Seven Weeks' War.
1866/--/-- 110 - The Ku Klux Klan is founded in the southern United States.
1867/--/-- 111 - Alfred Nobel patents dynamite
1867/--/-- 111 - Bismark forms the North German Confederation under Prussian leadership.
1867/--/-- 111 - Diamond fields are discovered in South Africa.
1867/--/-- 111 - English photographer Julia Margaret Cameron takes Sir John Herschel's portrait.
1867/--/-- 111 - French troops withdraw from Mexico; Emperor Maximilian is executed by Juarez.
1867/--/-- 111 - Karl Marx publishes the first volume of Das Kapital.
1867/--/-- 111 - Nebraska is inaugurated as the 37th state of the Union.
1867/--/-- 111 - Sir John A. Macdonald becomes Canada's first prime minister.
1867/--/-- 111 - The Compromise (Ausgleich) of 1867 creates the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
1867/--/-- 111 - The Dominion of Canada is established by the British North America Act.
1868/--/-- 112 - A military coup led by General Juan Prim deposes Queen Isabella II of Spain.
1868/--/-- 112 - A skeleton of Cro-Magnon man is discovered in southern France.
1868/--/-- 112 - British labor unions form the Trades Union Congress.
1868/--/-- 112 - Christopher Sholes patents the first practical typewriter.
1868/--/-- 112 - Chulalongkorn succeeds his father Mongkut as the king of Siam (Thailand).
1868/--/-- 112 - Feminists Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton publish Revolution.
1868/--/-- 112 - Johannes Brahms' A German Requiem is performed for the first time.
1868/--/-- 112 - Ndebele king Mzilikazi dies in Africa; he is succeeded (1870) by his son Lobengula.
1868/--/-- 112 - The Meiji dynasty is restored in Japan; the Tokugawa shogunate is abolished.
1868/--/-- 112 - The Ten Years' War begins in Cuba against Spanish rule.
1868/--/-- 112 - U.S. President Andrew Johnson is impeached by Congress but acquitted by the Senate.
1868/--/-- 112 - William Gladstone becomes Liberal prime minister of Britain for the first time.
1869/--/-- 113 - 200 pitched battles between Indians and U.S. Calvary
1869/--/-- 113 - English author Matthew Arnold publishes Culture and Anarchy.
1869/--/-- 113 - French artist Eugene Louis Boudin paints On the Beach at Deauville.
1869/--/-- 113 - Grant is inaugurated as the 18th U.S. president; Colfax becomes vice-president.
1869/--/-- 113 - James Gordon Bennett Jr. commissions Stanley to search for Livingston in Africa.
1869/--/-- 113 - John Roebling designs the Brooklyn Bridge but dies after a construction accident.
1869/--/-- 113 - Louis Riel leads the Red River Rebellion in Canada.
1869/--/-- 113 - Ludwig II (Mad Ludwig) begins building his fantasy castles in Bavaria.
1869/--/-- 113 - Philadelphia garment workers organize the Knights of Labor, an early labor union.
1869/--/-- 113 - Pope Pius IX calls the First Vatican Council to discuss the dogma of papal infallibility.
1869/--/-- 113 - Russian composer Modest Mussorgsky begins work on his opera Boris Gudunov.
1869/--/-- 113 - Suez Canal opens
1869/--/-- 113 - The Cincinnati Red Stockings become the first professional baseball team.
1869/--/-- 113 - The Suez Canal is opened in Egypt.
1869/--/-- 113 - The first manufacturing patent is issued for chewing gum.
1869/--/-- 113 - The transcontinental railroad is completed at Promontory Point, Utah.
1869/--/-- 113 - Ulysses S. Grant (Republican) becomes president of the United States
1869/--/-- 113 - Union Pacific meets Central Pacific
1870/--/-- 114 - American industrialist John D. Rockefeller founds the Standard Oil Company.
1870/--/-- 114 - French war minister Leon Gambetta escapes from besieged Paris in a balloon.
1870/--/-- 114 - German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann excavates the ancient city of Troy.
1870/--/-- 114 - Paraguayan dictator Solano Lopez dies, ending the War of the Triple Alliance.
1870/--/-- 114 - Rome becomes the capital of the Kingdom of Italy.
1870/--/-- 114 - The Franco-Prussian War begins over a diplomatic incident engineered by Bismark.
1870/--/-- 114 - The Prussians defeat the French at Sedan; Napoleon III is taken prisoner.
1870/--/-- 114 - The Third Republic is formed in France; a Government of National Defense is established.
1870/--/-- 114 - The city of Miami is founded in Florida.
1871/--/-- 115 - American explorer Henry Morton Stanley finds Dr. Livingston in central Africa.
1871/--/-- 115 - Charles Taze Russell founds the Jehovah's Witnesses about this time.
1871/--/-- 115 - Fire destroys one-third of the city of Chicago.
1871/--/-- 115 - P.T Barnum launches a traveling circus, museum and menagerie.
1871/--/-- 115 - The Franco-Prussian War ends; Alsace and Lorraine are ceded to Germany.
1871/--/-- 115 - The French surrender to Prussia incites the Commune of Paris uprising.
1871/--/-- 115 - The German Empire is formally proclaimed at the Palace of Versailles.
1871/--/-- 115 - The Paris Commune is suppressed by government troops after a 2-month siege.
1871/--/-- 115 - Trade Unions legalized in Britain
1872/--/-- 116 - American artist James McNeill Whistler paints the Portrait of the Artist's Mother.
1872/--/-- 116 - English author George Eliot (Mary Anne Evans) publishes Middlemarch.
1872/--/-- 116 - Indian leader Kintpuash leaves the Modoc reservation; the Modoc Wars begin.
1872/--/-- 116 - Monet paints Impression: Sunrise; the term impressionism is derived from the title.
1872/--/-- 116 - Photographer Eadweard Muybridge begins his series of motion studies.
1872/--/-- 116 - The Challenger Expedition begins the first systematic oceanographic survey.
1872/--/-- 116 - The cities of Buda and Pest unite to form Budapest (the capital of Hungary from 1918).
1872/--/-- 116 - The death of Kamehameha V ends the Kamehameha dynasty of Hawaiian kings.
1872/--/-- 116 - The first woman impressionist artist Berthe Morisot paints The Cradle.
1873/--/-- 117 - Englishman Maj. Walter Clopton Wingfield invents lawn tennis.
1873/--/-- 117 - French novelist Jules Verne publishes Around the World in Eighty Days.
1873/--/-- 117 - The Pacific Scandal in Canada causes the collapse of the Conservative government.
1873/--/-- 117 - The Panic of 1873 leads to 5 years of economic depression in the U.S.
1874/--/-- 118 - Benjamin Disraeli becomes the Conservative prime minister of Britain.
1874/--/-- 118 - English author Thomas Hardy publishes Far from the Madding Crowd.
1874/--/-- 118 - First impressionist exhibit in Paris
1874/--/-- 118 - French impressionist artist Pierre Auguste Renoir paints La Loge (The Box).
1874/--/-- 118 - The Comanche, Kiowa and other Indian tribes attack Adobe Walls in Texas.
1874/--/-- 118 - The Greenback party advocates currency reform in the U.S.
1874/--/-- 118 - The first exhibition of impressionist paintings is held in Paris.
1875/--/-- 119 - American author Mark Twain publishes Tom Sawyer.
1875/--/-- 119 - Britain buys Suez Canal shares from the bankrupt Egyptian leader Ismail Pasha.
1875/--/-- 119 - Charles Stewart Parnell begins movement for Irish independence
1875/--/-- 119 - Georges Bizet's opera Carmen is performed in Paris.
1875/--/-- 119 - Mary Baker Eddy, founder of Christian Science, publishes Science and Health.
1875/--/-- 119 - The Bourbon monarchy is restored in Spain under Alfonso XII.

In 1755 Transportation was by:
          Foot
          Horse
          Sailing ship
By 1875 Transportation was by:
          Bicycle
          Train
          Steamboat
in addition.
By 1875 Transportation by:
          Sailing ship
had been discontinued.

In 1755 Communications was by:
          Word of Mouth
          Post Office
By 1875 Communications was by:
          Telegraph
in addition.

In 1755 Food Preparation was by:
          Wood

In 1755 Entertainment was by:
          Social Intercourse
          Organized Sports
          Travel
          Professional Sports
          Movies
          Radio
          Television
          Theme parks
          Computer

In 1755 Health Care was by:
          Operations
          Anesthetic
          X-Rays
          MRI

In 1755 War Making was by:
          Calvary
          gun
          Artillery
By 1875 War Making was by:
          Machine guns
          Submarine
          Iron Clad ships
          Mines
in addition.

In 1755 Navigation was by:
          Stars & Maps
          Compass

from the SFHR database of Duane Bristow 02-04-2016 10:03:08


Index

Family and Social Relations

of Bristow, Benjamin 1755/05/19

Index

Last revised 02/04/16.