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War of the Minds - Archive - War VII

An Internet Contest

We have a winner of War VII

Drew Smith - Instructor, School of Library and Information Science, University of South Florida, Tampa has accumulated 700 points.


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Archives - War VII

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Archives of Previous Battles - War VII

War VII - battle 9
1. Forestry
A hardwood log is graded based on the third best of four faces of the log. How are the locations of these faces determined?
see Answer
2. Computers
MUD, MOO, MUSH. What are these?
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
Where is the easternmost point in the United States and why might one consider this a trick question?
see Answer
4. Math - unanswered
Suppose ten marbles are inserted into a box based on the tosses of an unbiased coin, a white marble being inserted when the coin turns up heads and a black one when the coin turns up tails. Suppose someone who knows how the marbles were selected but not what their colors are selects ten marbles from the box one at a time at random, returning each marble and mixing the marbles thoroughly before making another selection. If all ten examined marbles turn out to be white, what is the probability to the nearest percent that all ten marbles in the box are white?
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
According to a forestry lecture site at WVU: "In a 12 foot grading section (usually the butt log of the tree), first visualize four sides or faces on the butt log. Then, pick the second worst face in terms of defects present (branches, knots, bumps, etc.); you ignore the worst face. This chosen face is used for determining the grade of the tree."
The faces are chosen to include as much defect as possible in the one face to be ignored.
See: http://www.forestry.caf.wvu.edu/faculty/coble/FMAN122/Lecture4/LectureWeek4.htm
2. Computers
All are forms of computer-assisted communication which consist of hyperlinked chat rooms that usually display a textual, fictional description of the room upon entering, and which may contain "objects" that can be manipulated in some way by the occupants of the room. The first MUDs were typically of the "hack and slay" variety, in which participants moved from room to room, interacting with other players, usually attempting to score points or achieve a quest by collaborating with or killing other players (as well as non-player entities generated by the MUD itself). MOOs have a tendency to be more constructive than destructive, and are often used for educational purposes to simulate cities, historical locations, etc. There is a great deal that has been written about all the various MUD/MOO/MUSH variations, and much can be found on Yahoo! in the "Home > Recreation > Games > Computer Games > Internet Games" category.
3. Philosophy and Science
Puerto Rico is the farthest east point of the US. It could be difficult if you only consider the states to be part of the US.

According to the folks at Infoplease
the Easternmost point: West Quoddy Head, Me. 44 degrees 49 minutes N, 66 degrees 57 minutes W
The "trick" in this question -- or rather, in the answer -- is that one could reasonably expect something to be "east" of West Quoddy Head, Maine.

Easternmost from where? It depends on whether one means "the point in an easterly direction from the geographic center of the United States" (which is probably what the typical person would think) or "the point which has the largest easterly value for longitude". It is this ambiguity which would cause some to consider this to be a trick question.
If we mean the latter, then the answer is Semisopochnoi Island, Alaska, in the Aleutians, at 179 degrees, 52 minutes east. See any recent World Almanac for this.
4. Math - unanswered in War VII
A computer simulation of the problem which ran until it had tried 1,000,000 times gave the following results:
 
It looks like there would be a 7% chance that all are white. 
 
Here are the results: 
 
 1,000,000 Trials 
 13,988 times 10 white balls drawn 
10 white balls drawn     1.40% of the time. 
    
Number of     10 white      total         
Black balls   balls drawn   trials        % of white   % total   % white 
 0             1016          1016               7.26      0.10    100.00 
 1             3499          9913              25.01      0.99     35.30 
 2             4635          43947             33.14      4.39     10.55 
 3             3276          116348            23.42     11.63      2.82 
 4             1283          205513             9.17     20.55      0.62 
 5             247           246244             1.77     24.62      0.10 
 6             32            204524             0.23     20.45      0.02 
 7             0             117809             0.00     11.78      0.00 
 8             0             44094              0.00      4.41      0.00 
 9             0             9653               0.00      0.97      0.00 
 10            0             939                0.00      0.09      0.00 
totals       13988          1000000           100.00    100.00 
 
Here is the program: 
10 KEY OFF:CLS 
15 DIM M(10),X(10),Y(10) 
90 F=0 
95 RANDOMIZE TIMER 
100 FOR Z=1 TO 10:IF RND>=.5 THEN M(Z)=1 ELSE M(Z)=0:F=F+1 
110 NEXT 
115 Y(F)=Y(F)+1 
200 W=0:FOR Z=1 TO 10:P=INT(RND*10+1):IF P<1 OR P>10 THEN STOP 
210 IF M(P)=1 THEN W=W+1 
220 NEXT 
300 C=C+1:IF W=10 THEN X(F)=X(F)+1:X=X+1 
400 LOCATE 1,10:PRINT C,X,USING"#####.##";100*X/C:Z2!=0:Z1!=0:Z3!=0 
410 LOCATE 5,1:FOR Z=0 TO 10:PRINT Z,X(Z),Y(Z), 
411 IF X>0 THEN Z2!=X(Z)/X 
412 IF C>0 THEN Z1!=Y(Z)/C 
413 IF Y(Z)>0 THEN Z3!=X(Z)/Y(Z!) 
414 PRINT USING"#####.##";100*Z2!;100*Z1!;100*Z3! 
415 NEXT 
420 X$=INKEY$ 
450 IF C=1000000! OR X$=CHR$(27) THEN GOTO 600 
500 GOTO 90 
600 OPEN "BALLS.TXT" FOR OUTPUT AS 1 
610 PRINT #1,STR$(C)+" Trials" 
620 PRINT #1,STR$(X)+" times 10 white balls drawn" 
630 PRINT #1,"10 white balls drawn ";:PRINT #1,USING"#####.##";100*X/C; 
632 PRINT #1,"% of the time." 
634 PRINT #1," ":PRINT #1,"  " 
650 PRINT #1,"Number of  ","10 white","total","             % total         " 
652 PRINT #1,"Black balls","balls drawn","trials","% of white     black   % white" 
660 FOR Z=0 TO 10:PRINT #1,Z,X(Z),Y(Z), 
670 Z1!=0:Z2!=0:Z3!=0 
680 IF X>0 THEN Z2!=X(Z)/X 
690 IF C>0 THEN Z1!=Y(Z)/C 
700 IF Y(Z)>0 THEN Z3!=X(Z)/Y(Z!) 
710 PRINT #1, USING"#######.##";100*Z2!;100*Z1!;100*Z3! 
720 NEXT 
900 CLOSE 
1000 SYSTEM 
 
Here is a mathematical solution:
1/(1+10(.9^10+.1^10)+45(.8^10+.2^10)+120(.7^10+.3^10)+210(.6^10+.4^10)+252 (.5^10)) which equals approximately .07019.
contributed by Kady Gerry.

From: Aaron Dunn.

Maybe my understanding of probability is flawed, but it seems that the chances of there being ten white marbles in the box would remain constant regardless of the result of any ten random selections from that box. There should be no connection whatsoever between those two events. The probability of drawing ten white marbles from in a row will change based on how many white marbles are in the bag. But I don't think the results of the random selection should have any effect on the probability of having any particular combination of marbles in the bag (except for there being NO chance of having ten black marbles in the bag). I don't understand the point of the "simulation" you ran--perhaps it didn't factor in the random selection, but then what WAS the point? I do not know the math behind determining the solution to this problem, but it seems that it rests completely on the probability of flipping the coin ten times and getting ten heads in a row (and therefore only white marbles in the box). Maybe I am completely misunderstanding things here, and you never factored in the ten random selections from the bag, but I'm pretty sure that the answer to the question is determined as soon as the coin has been flipped ten times.

Reply from Duane:

We do not know how many white marbles are in the box but we are trying to determine that by the process of making ten random drawings. It is not that the random drawings affects the chances of there being ten white marbles. The number of white marbles, as you point out, is constant or predetermined based on the results of previous coin tosses. The point is that if we do draw ten white marbles, what can we determine about the chances that all the marbles are white. Obviously we can conclude that not all the marbles are black. We can also be pretty sure that there are not nine black marbles. We can be a little less sure that there are not eight black marbles, etc. Ordinarily one would think that if he drew ten white marbles in a row that if he drew an eleventh it would probably be white and therefore one might conclude that it is likely that all the marbles are white. But wait! We also know the process by which the marbles were originally chosen. Because of that we know that it is very unlikely that they are all white (actually about 1 chance in 1000). So taking the two probabilities together, the probability that the marbles actually are all white and the probability that we could draw ten white marbles in a row, what is the composite probability of these two events.

We find from the simulation that if we did draw ten white balls in a row the most likely situation is that there were actually eight white balls and two black balls in the box. There is a 33% chance of this situation vs. a 7% chance of ten white balls and a 25% chance of nine white balls.

 
 

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War VII - battle 8
1. Forestry
In the midwestern United States a hopeless situation is described as "being in the center of a forty acre field and being charged by an enraged bull with only one tree available to climb and it being the one pictured below."

What is the common and scientific name of this member of the legume family?
see Answer
2. Computers
Please explain the difference between embedding an object and linking to an object and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each.
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
What is "Deep Ecology" as opposed to shallow or anthropocentric ecology?
see Answer
4. History
If you win a victory at a cost to you in resources that is more than you can afford you may say, "One more victory like that and I am lost." Such a victory is called a pyrrhic victory. Why?
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
Honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos)
See:
2. Computers
When you embed an object in one of your own documents, you are actually making a copy of the original information and putting that into your document. When you link to an object, you are merely providing a link to the original information wherever it actually exists.

For instance, imagine that you produce a Microsoft Word document and there is another file (somewhere) that has budget information that you want to display in your Word document. If you embed this information, the disadvantage is that if the original file containing the budget information is corrected, your Word copy will not reflect the correction. However, a linked copy would.

The downside to linking rather than embedding is that the original file could be deleted or moved, meaning that your own document would no longer have *any* access to the information.

See: http://www.hazelton.demon.co.uk/ole2.htm
3. Philosophy and Science
Deep ecology: By acknowledging the seamless relationship of human beings with the more-than-human world, and by experiencing this relationship first hand, the 'Self' is expanded to include the 'environment'. Caring for the Self automatically implies caring for the earth and vice-versa.
"Deep Ecology" holds that ecological value is independent of whether plants and animals are useful for human purposes, in other words, that both human and non-human life have intrinsic value. Deep Ecology involves questioning purposes and values at a fundamental level.

The term was coined by Norwegian philosopher Arme Naess in 1972. He noticed that the environmental movement could go in either the direction of shallow ecology which is the use of quick-fix solutions to pollution and resource depletion where the problems are abated and their causes are covered. The other direction is deep ecology which would look for fundamental facets of our culture that lead to degradation of our habitat. Naess's deep ecology demands a change in the basic ideas underlying civilization so that nature will be respected as valuable in itself and also as part of human activity. Since the terms inception deep ecology has developed into its own philosophy and has been the basis of a movement that sees fundamental social and ethical change as the only solution to the environmental crisis.
See:
4. History
In 280-279BC, King Pyrrhus of Epirus defeated the Romans in two battles, but lost almost one-third of his force in doing so. Plutarch reports that Pyrrhus, when congratulated on his victories, replied that another such victory would "utterly undo him".
See http://www.eblast.com/bcom/eb/article/2/0,5716,109192+12,00.html
 
 

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War VII - battle 7
1. Forestry
In the spring people search woodlands for these. What are they (genus name) and what is their attraction?


see Answer
2. Computers
In the picture of a motherboard below identify each type of slots labeled 1, 2, and 3.


see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
What is the difference in the length of a sidereal day and the length of a solar day and why does this difference occur?
see Answer
4. Math
Joe and Sam are at a party. Joe says,"I don't know these people but I just counted the number of people here and there are 25 besides myself. That means that if you asked them to group themselves by the month of their birth there would be an average of about two people in each group. Nevertheless I will bet you $50.00 even money that at least two of the people in this room have the same birthday, month and day."
Assuming that the people at the party are also strangers to Sam, should Sam take Joe's bet? Why or why not?
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
They're Morchella or Morel mushrooms, and they're supposed to be very tasty.
See:
2. Computers
Slot 1- Industry Standard Adapter (ISA)
Slot 2- Parallel Communications Interface (PCI)
Slot 3- Advanced Graphics Port (AGP)

See:
3. Philosophy and Science
The sideral day is about 4 minutes shorter than the solar day. The difference occurs in how a full rotation of the earth is defined. A sideral day is defined by the how long it takes for stars to return to their original position, which is the time it takes the earth to rotate 360 degrees. A solar day is defined by how long it takes the sun to return to its original position. Because we are orbiting around the sun, the sun appears to be sliding left along the background stars. This movement means the earth has to rotate slightly more to align up to the sun again, so a solar day has the earth rotating about 361 degrees for a "full" rotation.
See:
4. Math
The odds are in Joe's favor. With 26 people in the room (Joe + the 25 others), the probability that no two people will have the same birthday is permutation of 366 days taken among the 26 people divided by the sample space of all combinations of birthdays (366 ^ 26).
P(366,26) = 366! / (366! - 26!) = 1.8e66
366^26 = 4.47e66
Probability = P(366,26) / 366 ^ 26 = 0.40
The odds are actually a bit worse, since I assumed in the calculation that all 366 days have an equal chance of occuring, when Feb 29 only has a 25% chance of occuring. The break even point is about 22-23 people. With 23 people, the probability is 0.494%.
See http://www.mste.uiuc.edu/reese/birthday/explanation.html
 
 

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War VII - battle 6
1. Forestry
What is the scientific name of a bacteria (widely used as an insecticide) that kills leaf eating caterpillars such as eastern tent caterpillars?
see Answer
2. Computers
With a given monitor and video card, if we increase the screen resolution, what effect will this have on the vertical refresh rate?
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
Explain why the Second Law of Thermodynamics has been called "Time's Arrow". What is the Second Law of Thermodynamics and how is it related to entropy? Due to the Second Law of Thermodynamics homeostasis requires the expenditure of energy. Since Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity applies when spacetime is flat, will the Second Law of Thermodynamics not apply across a curved spacetime continuum? (This requires some speculation.)
see Answer
4. History/Math
Before 200 BC, Eratosthenes figured out the size of the earth, and he was right within about 10%. How did he do that?
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
Bacillus thuringiensis (commonly referred to as Bt)
See:
2. Computers
The vertical refresh rate is proportional to a monitor's horizontal scanning frequency and inversely proportional to the number of horizontal lines displayed. The number of horizontal lines is in fact a direct measure of the monitor's resolution. Therefore, increasing the screen resolution will lower the vertical refresh rate.
See:
3. Philosophy and Science
If we were watching a movie, but didn't know whether the movie was running backwards or forwards, we would generally be able to determine the forward direction by seeing which version of the movie is most probable given the Second Law of thermodynamics. This is the "Time's Arrow" reference to the Second Law. In the words of Frank Lambert: "Our psychological sense of time is based on the second law. It summarizes what we have seen, what we have experienced, what we think will happen."

As to what the Second Law *is*, Lambert describes it as "Energy spontaneously tends to flow only from being concentrated in one place to becoming diffused and spread out." As for entropy, Lambert says "Whenever energy flows from being concentrated to becoming dispersed, entropy has a positive sign mathematically and it increases. Therefore, over time entropy is constantly increasing because that's the direction energy flows in the real world -- toward diffusion."

As for curved spacetime, I bow to the words of "Sarfatti's On-Line Guide to The Feynman Lectures on Gravitation" (http://www.qedcorp.com/pcr/pcr/feynman/feyngrav.html), where the following appears: "Asher Peres, in his recent textbook on quantum mechanics (a la Bohr) shows that such a non-unitary theory permits communication using Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen quantum correlations, and also allows a Maxwell Demon to win, violating the classical limit of the second law of thermodynamics."
See:

4. History/Math
Eratosthenes compared the noon shadow at midsummer between Syene (now Aswan on the Nile in Egypt) and Alexandria. From his readings, he had learnt that once a year (on the day of the Summer solstice), the bottom of a well situated at Syene was illuminated by the Sun; however, at Alexandria, this never happened: obelisks always cast a shadow. So, on solstice day, he decided to measure the length of the meridian shadow cast by a gnomon at Alexandria. He found a value of 1/50th of a circumference (i.e. 7o 12') Using some available knowledge (such as the distance between the two cities being 5,000 stadia - the distance covered by caravans in 50 days at a rate of 100 stadia a day) and certain assumptions (that Alexandria and Syene were on the same meridian, and that the sun was so far away that its rays were essentially parallel), a simple geometric calculation gave the length of the circumference of the Earth as 250,000 "stadia." Although our idea of the exact value of the stadium is fairly hazy, a widely accepted figure of 160 metres puts the terrestrial circumference at 40,000 km.
See:
 
 

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War VII - battle 5
1. Forestry
This disease resulting in a canker or swollen area on the limbs or trunks of pine trees in the southern United States spreads to the pine trees by means of orange spores produced on infected oak leaves. What economically significant disease of southern pines and oaks is this?
see Answer
2. Computers
The BASIC computer program below opens a file with record length 36 bytes. It then writes 18 numbers into the file buffer in the 2 byte integer format (lsb+msb) and prints the buffer contents to the screen. What message is printed on the computer screen?
   DIM A$(20)
   OPEN "R",1,"temp.txt",36
   FIELD 1, 2 AS A$(1),2 AS A$(2),2 AS A$(3),2 AS A$(4),2 AS A$(5),2 AS A$(6),2 AS A$(7),2 AS A$(8),2 AS A$(9),2 AS A$(10),2 AS A$(11),2 AS A$(12),2 AS A$(13),2 AS A$(14),2 AS A$(15),2 AS A$(16),2 AS A$(17),2 AS A$(18)
   FIELD 1, 36 AS A99$
   RESTORE
   FOR Z=1 TO 18:READ X:LSET A$(Z)=MKI$(X):NEXT
   PRINT A99$
   CLOSE
   END
   DATA 28505,8309,25975,25970,24864,26400,28527 
   DATA 8292,24941,8302,26691,29281,25964,8307,25427,30056,31340,8225

see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
How many electrons are normally in the outermost electron shell of the Alkaline Earth Metals? Name the Alkaline Earth Metals.
see Answer
4. Culture
He is credited with directing the following movies among many others:
 Boy Meets Girl                 1994
 Burn Hollywood Burn            1998   
         With Sylvester Stallone, Whoopi Goldberg, Ryan O'Neal, Jackie Chan
 Catchfire (aka Backtrack)      1991
         With Dennis Hopper & Jodie Foster
 Death of a Gunfighter          1969
         With Richard Widmark
 Dune                           1984       TV version
 Fade In (aka Iron Cowboy)      1968
 Ghost Fever                    1987
 Hellraiser IV: Bloodline       1996
Since 1967 he has been credited with over 50 movies and TV shows. Who is this, not so famous, director and when was he born?
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
The disease is Cronartium quercuum, commonly referred to as Fusiform Rust or Pine-Oak Gall Rust. The web site http://www.forestry.uga.edu/abstracts/fhfs02.html provides the following short description: "Fusiform rust, is the most damaging disease of slash and loblolly pines throughout the southeastern United States. This disease causes stem, branch and trunk cankers (galls) to form on infected trees. The majority of infections occur prior to age 5. In the early spring active galls produce yellow-orange spores (aeciospores) that are windblown to young, tender oak leaves. Water, willow and laurel oaks are the most susceptible species affected. The fungus goes through three additional spore stages underneath the oak leaves. The fourth and final stage results in basidiospores being formed. The basidiospores are windblown to new pine needles and/or succulent green bark areas of young trees thus completing the disease life cycle".
See:
2. Computers
Once I tranlated your BASIC to C, I got:
You were a good man Charles Schulz!
to which I agree. (from Michael.)
3. Philosophy and Science
The six Alkaline Earth Metals are Beryllium, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium, and Radium. They have two electrons in their outermost electron shells.
See:
4. Culture
The "director" is Alan Smithee, who does not really exist. Alan Smithee was "born" in 1967, the same year he directed his first picture, Death of a Gunfighter (released 1969). The Directors Guild generally does not permit a director to remove her/his name from films. The only exceptions they make are cases in which a film was clearly taken away from a director and recut heavily against her/his wishes in ways that completely altered the film. Directors are required to appeal to the Guild in such cases. If the appeal is successful, their name is replaced by "Alan Smithee". That is the only permissible pseudonym for a director. So if you notice a film directed by Alan Smithee, it is certain it is not what its director intended, and likely that it is not any good.
See http://us.imdb.com/Bio?Smithee,+Alan
 
 

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War VII - battle 4
1. Forestry
Which of the following does not belong and why?
see Answer
2. Computers
What is this?


see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
Thomas Edison, after he had invented the electric light bulb, looked for ways to prolong the life of the filament. One thing he tried was to seal a metal wire into the evacuated bulb near the filament but not touching it. This didn't preserve the life of the filament but Edison noticed that an electric current seemed to flow from the filament to the wire across the vacuum gap. Although Edison could find no use for this knowledge he patented it in 1884 and called it the "Edison effect."

In 1904 an electrical engineer who had worked with Edison made use of the "Edison effect" and of the developing electron theory to devise an evacuated glass bulb with a filament and wire which would let current pass through in one direction and not in the other.

In 1906 an American inventor modified this device by introducing a metal plate which allowed it to amplify electric current as well as rectify it. This invention became the basis for many modern electronic devices and changed the world. What was this invention called and how was it used and who was the American Inventor?
see Answer

4. Math
In most scientific calculators pressing the following keys:
(4 + 5) * 6 =
will give the answer 54.
I get the same answer by pressing these keys:
4 [ENTER] 5 + 6 *
What type of calculator am I using?
see Answer
 
 
Michael A. Bayne - email: bayne@cs.virginia.edu
has 40 points for his answers to the questions below:
Michael's answers were dated Tue, 01 Feb 2000 09:38:33 -0500 (EST)
1. Forestry
Sylvilagus doesn't belong. It's an herbivore, and a tasty treat for all the other predators on the list. Drew Smith says to see http://ag.arizona.edu/OALS/watershed/beaver/ppfauna.html
3. Philosopy and Science
The invention in 1906 was the vacuum tube triode amplifier invented by Lee DeForest. The triode was developed to be an amplifier in radio applications.
Drew Smith says to see http://www.maxmon.com/1883ad.htm
Ann Lurie says to see http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/btfore.html
 
 
Zaheer Jhetam - gains 40 points for the correct answers to the questions below:
Zaheer's answers were dated Tue, 1 Feb 2000 15:04:48 +0200
2. Computers
A suggested "more efficient" alternative to the widely used QWERTY keyboard. Developed as long ago as 1932 when, with funds from the Carnegie Foundation, Professor August Dvorak of Washington State University came up with a superior keyboard, by arranging his letters according to frequency. The web site http://home.earthlink.net/~dcrehr/whyqwert.html (which is in fact devoted to the QWERTY keyboard arrangement) gives the following additional information about Dvorak's keyboard: "Dvorak's centre (home) row uses all five vowels and the five most common consonants: AOEUIDHTNS. With the vowels on one side and consonants on the other, a rough typing rhythm would be established as each hand would tend to alternate. With the Dvorak keyboard, a typist can type about 400 of the English language's most common words without ever leaving the home row. The comparable figure on QWERTY is 100. The home row letters on Dvorak do a total of 70% of the work. On QWERTY they do only 32%."
Drew Smith says to see http://www.dvorakint.org/
Ann Lurie says to see http://www.fentek-ind.com/dvorak.htm
4. Math
Nowadays, it appears as though the only calculators using this system, which is called "Reverse Polish Notation (RPN)", are made by HP (Hewlett Packard). The HP web site http://www.hpmuseum.org/rpnvers.htm has a section on the history of RPN.
 
 

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War VII - battle 3
1. Forestry
This tree, native to the Appalachian mountains, Missouri, Oklahoma and Arkansas has very hard strong durable wood and is often used for fence posts. When the nectar of the flowers is harvested by bees it makes delicious light colored honey.

Please give the common and scientific names.
see Answer
2. Computers
        If binary 00010000 equals
        10 hexadecimal equals
        16 decimal
   
        What is the product of
        binary 00100001 and
        binary 00000101?
 
        Please give the answer in 
        binary, hex, and decimal.
  

see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
This dinosaur lived during the Jurassic Period. Please identify it.


see Answer
4. Math
On New Year's morning, January 1, 2000, I received a phone call from a local businessman. He said that his computer failed to recognize the year 2000 and as a result the scheduling program on which his business depended gave incorrect calendar pages and was therefore useless. I explained that if he set the year properly in the twentieth century, his calendar pages would be correct though the year would be wrong. He said that this solution would work fine because he could simply instruct his employees to ignore the year. I then told him the latest year in the twentieth century which he could use. Fortunately his computer accepted that year and he was able to continue using the computer and the program. What year did I tell him to use and what are the three latest years before that one that had the same calendar pages?
see Answer
 
 
Michael A. Bayne - email: bayne@cs.virginia.edu
has 20 points for his answer to the question below:
Michael's answer was dated Mon, 24 Jan 2000 12:18:00 -0500 (EST)
1. Forestry
The tree is the Robinia pseudoacacia: Black Locust.
See http://www.hcs.ohio-state.edu/ODNR/Education/ohiotrees/locustblack.htm
 
 
Kady Gerry has 40 points for her answers to the questions below:
Kady's answers were dated Sun, 16 Jan 2000 10:55:03 -0500 (EST)
2. Computers
Binary 10100101
Hexidecimal A5
Decimal 165
See Binary - A program to help you learn about binary numbers. (61k download.)
Drew Smith says to also see SCEN103 -- Binary/Hex/Decimal Convertor
3. Philosophy and Science
I believe this dinosaur is an apatosaurus, also known as brontosaurus.
See American Museum of Natural History: Apatosaurus
Drew Smith says to also see Sauropoda
Ian Metcalfe says to also see http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/dinosaurs/index.html
 
 
Drew Smith has 20 points for his answer to the question below:
Drew's answer was dated Sun, 16 Jan 2000 12:25:03 -0500 (EST)
4. Math
The most recent calendar year that was identical to 2000 was 1972. Before that: 1876, 1916 and 1944.
See Virtual Perpetual Calendars
 
 

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War VII - battle 2
1. Forestry - unanswered
I have 100 acres of northern red oak trees, Quercus rubra. The average circular spacing between trees is 37 feet. These trees when 50 years old were 70 feet tall. They have an average merchantable height of two 16 foot logs per tree. If these trees are 22 inches dbh and have a form class of 78 and if this grade of red oak is selling at the local sawmill for $600.00 per mbf, International 1/4 inch log scale and if the total cost of felling, skidding, bucking, loading and hauling to the mill is $100.00 per mbf., what is the total dollar value (to the nearest $1,000) on the stump of this tract of timber? Is this a good site for growing Quercus rubra?
According to Mesavage and Girard a Form Class 78, two log tree with a dbh of 22 inches contains 368 board feet International 1/4 inch log rule.
see Answer
2. Computers
Why does the standard keyboard on an IBM-PC compatible computer have the cursor movement keys including [HOME], [END], [Pg Up], and [Pg Dn] duplicated on the numeric keypad?
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
Lake Vostok is about the same size as Lake Ontario. No one ever goes boating there. Why not?
see Answer
4. Culture
        Straight overhead the orb of noon
        Beat down with brimstone breath:
        The desert wind from south and west 
        Was blistering flame and death.
    
        ..............................
 
        We feasted high there
        And had much milk and meat.
        The tables groaned to give us power
        Wherewith to save the wheat.
        Our beds were sweet alfalfa hay
        Within the barn-loft wide.
        The loft doors opened out upon
        The endless wheat-field tide.
 
        I loved to watch the windmills spin
        And watch that big moon rise.
        I dreamed and dreamed with lids half-shut,
        The moonlight in my eyes.
 
        For all men dream there
        By noonday and by night,
        By sunrise yellow, red and wild,
        And moonrise wild and white.
     
        The wind would drive the glittering clouds,
        The cottonwoods would croon,
        And past the sheaves and through the leaves
        Came whispers from the moon.
Who wrote these words describing what place?
see Answer
 
 
Question 1 was unanswered during War of the Minds II. The answer is:

The average circular tree spacing is 37 feet. Thus by A=pi*R^2 each tree takes up 18.5*18.5*3.14=1074.66 sq. feet. At 43,560 sq. ft. per acre there are about 40.53 trees per acre or 4053 trees on 100 acres. 4053 * (368 bd. ft. per tree) * $0.50 per bd ft. ($500 per 1000) = $745,800.

As for the quality of the stand 70 feet in height at 50 years of age is considered a good but not outstanding site index for Northern Red Oak. Remember the 70 feet is total height, not merchantable height. In a normal stand a yield of about 15,000 bd ft per acre as in this example would be reasonable at about 80 years of age. Foresters define a normal stand though not as an average stand but as an ideal stand, unlikely to occur in actual practice.

 
 
Drew Smith has 20 points for his answer to the question below:
Drew's answer was dated Sat, 1 Jan 2000 13:30:49 -0500 (EST)
2. Computers
I believe that originally the cursor movement keys were *only* on the numeric keypad. This meant that one would have to lock and unlock the Num Lock key in order to switch between the use of the keypad for numbers and the use of the keypad for cursor movement. Later, the cursor movement keys were duplicated and made available as standalone keys, allowing the user to keep the Num Lock on at all times and therefore making the keypad numbers always available. However, the original cursor movement keys were maintained at their old positions in order to maintain compatibility with older software.
 
 
Anne Lurie has 40 points for her answers to the questions below:
Anne's answers were dated Sat, 1 Jan 2000 12:12:41 -0500 (EST)
3. Philosophy and Science
No one goes boating on Lake Vostok because it's near the South Pole, under 4 kilometers of ice.
See: http://www.amsci.org/Amsci/articles/99articles/Siegert.html
Drew Smith says to also see http://www.scar.org/Events/vostok.htm
Ian Metcalfe says to also see http://www.knowledge.co.uk/frontiers/sf102/sf102g10.htm
4. Culture
This was written by Nicholas Vachel Lindsey, describing Kansas.
See: http://skyways.lib.ks.us/kansas/poetry/vlindsey.html
Drew Smith says the entire poem is available at http://skyways.lib.ks.us/poetry/vlindsey.html
It is also available here.
 
 
 
 

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War VII - battle 1
1. Forestry
Below is a micro photograph of White Ash, a ring porous wood. The number "1" marks latewood. "2" marks earlywood. If the summer is rainy so that more latewood than usual grows and the ratio of latewood to earlywood increases what effect will this have on the specific gravity of the wood? Explain?


see Answer
2. Computers
*.txt, *.html, *.uue, *.exe, *.gif, *.mid, *.bmp
Which should be transmitted over the internet as a binary file? What is a binary file?
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
This late 18th century and early 19th century French botanist and zoologist is best known for his study of invertebrates. He explained nature as being controlled by three biological laws: environmental influence on organ development, change in body structure based on use and disuse of parts, and inheritance of acquired characteristics. Who was he and what field of biological science begun in 1900 and built on the work of an Austrian monk eventually replaced his idea of inheritance of acquired characteristics?
see Answer
4. Math
If a hobo can make one cigar to smoke from five cigar butts, how many cigars can he make and smoke if he finds twenty-five cigar butts?
see Answer
 
 
David Thomson has 40 points for his answers to the questions below:
David's answers were dated Sun, 19 Dec 1999 14:00:50 -0500 (EST)
1. Forestry
I'm guessing here, or making deductions based on assumptions that I guess are right: Since latewood is likely (my guess) to have more water in it than earlywood, and since water is heavier than wood, I would think that the specific gravity would increase in the circumstances you describe.
4. Math
The hobo can make six cigars. Each cigar as smoked contains 4 butts; 25/4 = 6, and one last butt to throw away (or save until he finds some more).
Or said another way, he can make 5 cigars and when he smokes those he will have 5 more butts to make a 6th cigar.
 
 
Drew Smith has 20 points for his answer to the question below:
Drew's answer was dated Sun, 19 Dec 1999 16:27:43 -0500 (EST)
2. Computers
The term "binary file" is generally used to describe any file that is not a "text file" (or "ASCII file"). The bit patterns of text files are normally interpreted by computer systems according to the ASCII code (except for IBM- compatible mainframes, which may still use EBCDIC code), and therefore the contents of text files are expected to represent the primarily printable characters such as the letters of the alphabet (both upper and lowercase), the numbers, the punctuation marks, and the space.
Computer files in any *other* format are generally referred to as "binary files", and the computer system usually attempts to interpret their contents based upon the file extension. When transferring files between computer systems, using such utilities as FTP, one is often given the choice of indicating a "text" transfer or a "binary" transfer. Unless one is transferring files to or from an IBM mainframe, it is usually safe to use binary transfer for all types of files, but regardless, all file types other than *.txt, *.html, and *.uue *should* be transferred as binary.
 
 
Ian Metcalfe has 20 points for his answer to the question below:
Ian's answer was dated Sun, 19 Dec 1999 15:31:58 -0500 (EST)
3. Philosophy
Jean Baptiste de Monet de Lamarck (1744-1829) was one of the most famous proponents of the inheritance of acquired characteristics. However, the biological science of heredity (the fundamental law thereof discovered by Gregor Mendel in 1865) superseded Lamarck's theories.
Web page http://www.strangescience.net/ makes interesting reading.

Drew Smith says to also see http://encarta.msn.com/index/conciseindex/17/0177D000.htm
and http://encarta.msn.com/find/concise.asp?z=1&pg=2&ti=03028000

 
 

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Standings in the War - VII

Drew Smith - Instructor, School of Library and Information Science, University of South Florida, Tampa - 700 points
Michael A. Bayne - Computer Systems Engineer, Department of Computer Science, University of Virginia - 380 points
Kady Gerry - High school student from Madison, WI. In free time (ha!) also plays flute and chess, and solves world problems in the Model UN. - 320 points
Anne Lurie - Retired in Raleigh, North Carolina; likes birdwatching, genealogy, research, and surfing the Internet! - 220 points
Zaheer Jhetam - Manager: Logistics and Quality - South Africa - 200 points
Ian Metcalfe - Quality Assurance Manager, Hartlepool, England - 100 points
David Thomson - 40 points
 
 

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