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War of the Minds - Archive - War IX

An Internet Contest


We have a winner of War IX

Nicholas A Godlewski, aeronautical engineering student at WPI (Worcester Polytechnic Institute), has accumulated 1140 points.


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Archives - War IX

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Archives of Previous Battles - War VIII

War IX - battle 18
1. Forestry
What are sclerenchyma cells and why are they important to trees?
see Answer
2. Computers
The recent Sircam virus selects a file at random from an infected computer and appends it to the virus which is then emailed as an attachment to a random email address found on the infected computer. I have received 30 or 40 of these emails. At first I simply deleted them as I do all unknown or unsolicited email. Then I thought it might be interesting to look at some of the files sent from infected computers. I found an employment contract between a church in Lexington, Kentucky and its minister, an order for over $42,000 worth of construction equipment, and a love poem. Then I quit wasting my time and went back to deleting the emails. Most people are either ignorant of email viruses and open them, infecting their computer, or are very scared of viruses and will not touch them but delete them immediately. How was I able to look at the content of a virus infected email attachment without infecting my computer? Your answer does not require the specific program used (you wouldn't know that), but simply a discussion of how a virus infects computers and how it can be examined and analyzed.
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
In 1783 man made his first free flight in the air untethered to the ground. Who? Where? How?
see Answer
4. Math
A number consists of three digits which are in arithmetic progression. The number divided by the sum of its digits is equal to 26. If the number is increased by 198, the digits in the units and hundreds places will be interchanged. Find the number.
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
Sclerenchyma cells are a rigid, supportive cell type in plants usually lacking protoplasts and possessing thick secondary walls strengthened by lignin at maturity. The reason they are important to trees is because of the lignin, which is the main chemical contituent of wood. The cells usually die at maturity, but give the plant or tree a frame to support it. Thus trees can grow tall and not be flimsy.
Sclerenchyma cells are that category of plant cells which serve primarily to support and strengthen the plant.. They are rigid with thick, non-stretchable secondary cell walls, and occur in all mature parts of plant: leaves, stems, roots, and bark. Sclerenchyma cells are usually dead at maturity. They occur in two types: sclereids (which are short and variable in shape) and fibres (long, slender cells that make strands and are often associated with vascular tissue)
Sclerenchyma cells are the principal supporting cells in plant parts that have ceased elongation. Sclerenchyma fibres constitute the source material for many fabrics (flax, hemp, jute, ramie). Two groups of sclerenchyma cells exist: fibres and sclereids. Fibres are generally long, slender cells that occur usually in strands or bundles. Their high load-bearing capacity and the ease with which they can be processed, has since antiquity made them the source material for a number of things, like ropes, fabrics or mattresses. Sclereids are variable in shape. They can be grouped into bundles, can form complete tubes or can occur as single cells or small groups of cells. The shell of many seeds like those of nuts as well as the stones of drupes like cherries or plums are made up from sclereids.
See:
2. Computers
A virus sent as an email attachment will not cause any harm until it is "run". In order to "run", it has to be an executable program - a document alone will not carry malicious code. An email containing a SirCam-infected attachment is a document, but the virus executable has been wrapped up in the document, like a parasite. When you look at the SirCam-infected attachment, you'll see that the filename seems to have two extensions - a .doc, and a .exe or .pif or .com. The executable is the "real" extension, masking the document. When it is activated, the document (or in some cases, .ZIP file, or spreadsheet) opens, and provides a cover for its dirty work. The executable steals the addresses in the MS Outlook address book, replicates itself masked with a document stolen from the hard drive, and is sent to the stolen addresses.
If you do not activate the attachment, you can certainly crack it open by opening it with a text-reader application, or perhaps with Word itself, which would allow you to see the text of the document without setting off the virus.
There is a big difference between opening a file and running a file when the file is an executable file (such as a file ending in .exe or .bat file extensions). For instance, double-clicking on an executable file will usually run it. Therefore, Sircam works by e-mailing an executable file (with an attached document). If the executable file is run, it will infect the user's computer. However, if one *opens* the file *instead* of running it (say, by using a plain text editor such as Notepad or WordPad to open it), one can safely examine the contents of the file without running it.
3. Philosophy and Science
The flight was in a hot-air balloon, build by Etienne & Joseph Montgolfier. The men who rode in the balloon were Pilatre de Rozier, a science teacher, and the Marquis D'Arlandes, a military officer. It took place in Paris, beginning at the Chateau de la Muette, and traveling more than five miles. The flight lasted about 25 minutes. This flight took place in November; a few months earlier, in September, the brothers Montgolfier demonstrated their balloon to the King and Queen (Louis XIV and Marie Antoinette), but the passengers aboard were a sheep, a duck, and a cockerel.
An amusing account: http://www.nwlink.com/~lwnelson/roz.htm
4. Math
Let the three digit number be x="abc". You will then have four equations in four unknowns, which you can solve simultaneously:
     x=100*a+10*b+c
     b-a=c-b
     x=26*(a+b+c)
     x+198=100*c+10*b+a
The only solution to this set of equations gives x=234.
There are only 16 3-digit numbers whose digits form an arithmetic progression (assuming that the first digit is not 0). Of these 16, only the 7 numbers 123, 234, etc. reverse their digits when you add 198. Of these 7, only the number 234 can be evenly divided by 26.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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War IX - battle 17
1. Forestry
While gathering firewood for a campfire one night I happened upon an old tree stump that glowed in the dark with an eerie pale bluish green light.
I added a piece of it to my load of firewood and when burned on the fire the flames turned a strange color.
What caused this?
see Answer
2. Computers
In order of use:
  1. Microsoft Internet Explorer
  2. Netscape
Web Browsers!
What's the third browser on this list, said to be the "Fastest Web Browser on Earth."
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
Collectively, what are these?
see Answer
4. Math
What is this?


see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
Note: For the first time ever, 5 people all got a clean sweep by answering all four questions correctly.
War of the Minds must be getting very easy!
 
 
1. Forestry
What you found is called in many places "fox fire wood". This term is used to describe one of a number of bioluminescent fungi, often seen on the forest floor, or happily decomposing fallen wood. Some combination of enzymes and oxygen produce the glowing. One species, Armillarielia mellea, is known as the honey mushroom or possibly a fungus such as Panellus stypticus.
The wood is being infiltrated by mats of the thread like body or mycelium of the fungi.
See:
2. Computers
The "fastest web browser on Earth" is a Norwegian product called Opera. They make versions for many varied operating systems, from the ubiquitous Windows and Mac, to the more esoteric Linux and BeOS. Their browser "creator" program is called, of course, Opera Composer. Hee.
Their web page is http://www.opera.com but a site which provides a simpler, high-level comparison of the three web browsers is at http://www.mneptok.com/opera/opera.html
The third browser is Opera, and it is a very nice browser. One of the features I enjoy is the ability to view web pages in various magnifications. This feature changes the size of text, pictures, etc. so it really shrinks and enlarges. Unlike the top two browsers on the list, Opera does cost something ($39.00, $20.00 for students.) However, you can download a free version from www.opera.com - it will display an ad banner, however.
3. Philosophy and Science
These are the names of the Finger Lakes in New York state. (Except you misspelled one - it's "Consesus".)
They make up the Finger Lakes, narrow lakes in the central-west region of New York state. The area apparently has a terrible bed-and-breakfast infestation.
See http://www.xrefer.com/entry.jsp?xrefid=201617
4. Math
This is a Klein bottle. It's a sort of topological marvel, as it technically has only one surface, and zero volume. One can make a Klein Bottle by joining opposite ends of a cylinder with a twist. You could also make one by attaching two Möbius strips along their boundary circles. Of course, you can't actually make one in 3D space without the 'neck' of the bottle intersecting with itself at some point.
It is really a 4-dimensional object that can be immersed in 3-d as shown. A quick overview shows that in a sense like a mobius strip has only one side, in essence a Klein Bottle is that of whatever is done in 4-Dimensions. This is because the "intersection" between the planes is not really an intersection when observed in 4-D.
Here's a fun page: http://www.kleinbottle.com/
Also See:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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War IX - battle 16
1. Forestry
I was asked to cruise a timber tract in which the client did not have a good deed description. He was able to furnish me deed calls for his land obtained from deeds of adjoining landowners. Unfortunately, these calls were from different surveys done by various surveyors in various time periods. Therefore, I had to do some conversions. Here is the description he furnished me:
Beginning at a white oak beside a spring thence 203 degrees 
azimuth 10 chains to a stake, thence North 67 degrees West 20 
rods to a cedar, thence turning a clockwise 270 degree angle and 
proceeding 80 poles to a rock, thence 113 degrees azimuth 330 
feet to a fence post near where the brown cow stood, thence to 
the beginning. 
It will be noted that the distance and direction of the last deed call are not given. What is this distance and direction and how many acres in area is this tract of land?
see Answer
2. Computers
In a Windows 98 operating system where will we find the winipcfg program and for what is it used?
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
There is no actual retrograde motion of the planets in our solar system except for the rotation of one planet. What is the cause of apparent retrograde motions of the planets and what planet actually exhibits retrograde rotation?
see Answer
4. Culture
Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote of a man, son of Utherpendragon, whose half sister was Morgana and whose nemesis was Mordred. Who was he?
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
The area described by this survey is 10 acres. Here is a summary of conversions needed:
Azimuth is measured in degrees clock-wise from true North.
1 chain = 66 feet
1 pole = 1 rod = 16˝ feet
North 67 degrees West = 67 degrees counter-clockwise from North
The final distance and direction of the last call would be 23 degrees azimuth for 1980 ft, back to the originating point.

The thing that is strange about this is that there is 660 feet that is walked in a straight line twice, and thus does not count towards any square footage of land (but might make a nice path or something).
From Duane: It is common when calls from several deeds are copied from surveyors notes and from deed to deed and then put together for a new deed for one of the calls to end up reversed. That seems to be what happened here. Probably the first call should have been 23 degrees or the third call should have been a 90 degree angle rather than 270, although other errors could account for the effect.
2. Computers
The WINIPCFG file is in the main Windows folder. Running the program establishes an IP address for use with a program such as RoadRunner (a non-dialup, constant connection).
The file can be found in the windows directory of your computer's boot drive. This program can tell you your IP (Internet Protocol) number, which is a unique number to every machine attached to the Internet. Usually this number is assigned by your ISP when you connect. In some cases, you can change your IP number using this program, or request a new IP number if your computer "loses its mind."
What winipcfg stands for gives a brief summary of what it is - "Windows IP Configuration" (or something close to that). It allows the user to find out various network settings such as your IP number, subnet mask, DNS server numbers, gateway numbers, and any DHCP or WINS server numbers. It allows the user to also change what type of connection that is there, wether it is PPP (modem), or some other type of connection such as a LAN. The winipcfg screen is mostly for display, and cannot be readily changed. Instead, you have to go to the properties window of the Network Neighboorhood, and change what needs to be done there. However, winipcfg is a handy network tool, and releases your information to the servers and where else so that the servers can recognize the cards or modems that are being used and allow them into the hub and onto the network.
3. Philosophy and Science
The planet in question is Venus, which rotates in an opposite direction to that of the Earth. As a curiosity, the orbit of Uranus is not retrograde, but irregular - it's plane of rotation is almost perpendicular to its plane of revolution about the Sun. The apparent retrograde motion of some planets is explained by their position in the sky relative to the Earth. As the Earth overtakes them (in its orbit), the planets appear to slow down, then go backward for a time. I think it's worth noting that in Ptolemy's explanation of the solar system, the planets actually did move backwards. This system made perfect sense, but it wasn't the simplest explanation. The simple explanation wasn't accepted because it displaced the Earth from the center of the solar system.
Retrograde motion itself is the apparent motion of celestial bodies moving from east to west relative to the motion of the fixed stars. What causes retrograde motion is the velocity (speed and direction) of one planet relative to another. If we are considering Earth as the planet that is observing retrograde motion, than we can consider the planets in two different classes for this phenomenom: superior planets (those with an orbit further away from the sun than Earth's), and inferior (those with an orbit closer to the suns than Earth). The reason that we see retrograde motion because one planet overtakes the other in the sense of velocity. It is like when you are in a car, and driving by another car that is going just a little slower in the same direction. They are moving backwards relative to the posiotion that you are in, but they are still moving forwards relative to a stationary object or bystander. Even though both objects are moving forward, one object to the other seems to be moving backwards. This is how the retrograde motion is observed. Also, the one planet with true retrograde motion (from East to West) is Venus (although the plane in which Uranus rotates is tilted slighty more than 90 degrees to the plane of the ecliptic, so that it's motion is technically retrograde.
See:
4. Culture
This is Arthur, King of the Britons of Camelot fame. There is an interesting and imaginative retelling of the King Arthur story by science fiction/fantasy writer A. A. Attanasio, starting with The Dragon and the Unicorn.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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War IX - battle 15
1. Forestry
If I tell you that my forest consists mainly of Archaeopteris spp., what do you know about me?
see Answer
2. Computers
What do the column headings, 1, 2, 3, and 4, in the following table indicate?
        1        2       3        4
        -        -       -        -
        1        3       7       15
        2        5      11
        4        6      13
        8        9      14
                10
                12

see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
24 satellites in 6 orbital planes, 4 satellites in each plane, 20,200 Km altitude, 55 degree inclination. What does this describe?
see Answer
4. Culture
Ten years ago on a cold dark night there was someone killed beneath the town hall light.
The Judge said, "Son, what is your alibi? If you were somewhere else then you won't have to die."
I spoke not a word though it meant my life.
Why not? Where was I?
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
Perhaps you're Fred Flintstone?
Just kidding. Since Archaeopteris spp. is one of the first trees (from the late Devonian period), maybe you're a pre-historic insect or amphibian of some kind. As this tree spread across the earth, it pulled carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and brought down the temperature of the globe. This made land friendlier for the creatures venturing out of the earth's oceans and onto the beaches.
The plant species Archaeopteris spp. is an extinct tree that made up most of the Earth's forests in the Devonian period (370-ish million years ago). (Consequently, it is a very commonly found plant fossil.) It's really known as the first modern tree, because it is the earliest tree so far discovered to have had a modern root structure, and a branched trunk and reinforced branch joints, like a modern tree.
It germinated by releasing spores, like the ferns that were also a dominant plant species at the time; in fact, its leaf structure strongly resembled that of the fern. (This really confused some of the earlier archaeologists that discovered these fossils: a plant with wood fibers, but fern fronds? They were sure it belonged to two different plants.) This tree also flourished as many other tree species became extinct, and covered most of the habitable land on the planet, ensuring its place in evolutionary history.
So, all this is to say: what do I know about you? You're either writing from 370 million years ago, or you are also a fossil. I mean literally, not as an insult.
It depends on how you are asking the question. If you are asking where you are modern day, and if you are in the United States, the best place would be Red Hill in central Pennsylvania. However, if you are talking about when the Archaeopteris spp. actually thrived you would be from the Devonian period in the Paleozoic era, mos likely in the late epoch, approximately 360-374 million years ago. If you actually lived back then and were of other than flora status, you could be a primitive fish, amphibian, or insect to name a few. However, mammals didn't appear until about 150 millin years later. So if you were you back then you would actually be a liar. The Archaeopteris spp. is a type of tree that was one of the first great trees.
See http://www.mdgekko.com/devonian/neighborhood/plants/archaeopteris.html
2. Computers
The table heading refers to how many binary 'ones' are required to express the number below it in binary form. For example:
1: 0001 (one 1)
2: 0010 (one 1)
3: 0011 (two 1's)
..
7: 0111 (three 1's)
..
15: 1111 (four 1's)
 
1 - 1      2 - 10     3 - 11     4 - 100     5 - 101
6 - 110    7 - 111    8 - 1000   9 - 1001    10 - 1010
11 - 1011  12 - 1100  13 - 1101  14 - 1110   15 - 1111
3. Philosophy and Science
This describes the space component of the Global Positioning System, which is able to fulfill the life-long dreams of grown men to know the exact coordinates of their back porch. The satellites are positioned so that at least 6 satellites are in "sight" at any place on earth.
The 24 satellites form part of the Blocks II satellite constellation and are produced by Rockwell International, Satellite Systems Division.
See:
4. Culture
This is from the song "Long Black Veil," written by Danny Dill and Marijohn Wilkin. It has been covered by such luminaries as The Band and the Dave Matthews Band. (Perhaps you have to have the word "band" in your group's name if you want to cover it.) I had been in the arms of my best friend's wife, and I guess I didn't want to upset him. Personally, I would have sang like a bird. And, you will note she didn't say a damn word herself to save my miserable life.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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War IX - battle 14
1. Forestry
Which one of the following does not belong and why?
see Answer
2. Computers
If I have text data to store in a file I can create a random access file with 80 byte records and store the data one line per record so that I can recall any record and display it on one line of the screen. It might make more sense though to create 82 byte records in the random access file and put ASCII character 13 in the 81st byte and ASCII character 10 in the 82nd byte of each record. If I did this I would probably also fill the last record of the file with ASCII character 26. Why would it make sense to set up the file this way?
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
Why will August 27, 2003 be a particularly good time for observation of the planet, Mars?
see Answer
4. Math
A customer at a 7-11 store selected four items to buy, and was told that the cost was $7.11. He was curious that the cost was the same as the store name, so he inquired as to how the figure was derived. The clerk said that he had simply multiplied the prices of the four individual items. The customer protested that the four prices should have been ADDED, not MULTIPLIED. The clerk said that that was OK with him, but, the result was still the same: exactly $7.11.
What were the prices of the four items?
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
Meleagris gallopavo = wild turkey
Sciurus carolinensis = Eastern grey squirrel
Procyon lotor = raccoon
Sturnella magna = Eastern meadowlark
Lynx rufus = bobcat
Dryocopus pileatus = pileated woodpecker
Caprimulgus vociferus = whippoorwill
So, even though these are all animal species, this IS a forestry question after all: the one that doesn't belong is Sturnella magna, the Eastern meadowlark; it is the only species of the group that does not make its nest/home/den in a forested/woodland area. It is a prairie or marshland bird.
2. Computers
By creating 2 extra 1-byte fields and filling those fields with ASCII 13 & ASCII 10 respectively, you add a [carriage return][line feed] to the end of those records. Now the database is much more accessible to other applications. For example, even the DOS command TYPE will display each entry on its own line, rather than all the entries run together. By making an extra entry full of ASCII 26, you provide an end-of-file marker.
Also this converts the file to a text file readable by about all word processors.
3. Philosophy and Science
Mars is in opposition and closer to Earth and brightest on that day.
"On that date, the Earth-Mars distance will be the smallest it has been in at least 5000 years, and probably for a good while before that," says astronomer Myles Standish of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. "The next one closer than that of 2003 will be the opposition of August 2287."
4. Math
The items cost $3.16, $1.50, $1.20, & $1.25.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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War IX - battle 13
1. Forestry
Why have most of the dogwood trees in the Great Smokey Mountains National Park died in the last few years?
see Answer
2. Computers
Identify the company which manufactured each of the following computers:
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
If I want to compare two NEOs (Near Earth Objects such as comets or asteroids) as to their hazard to Earth what scale would I use for this comparison?
see Answer
4. History
If I decide to put a pukao atop my moai, where am I and approximately when?
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
An epidemic of dogwood anthracnose(Discula destructiva) which experts believe may have been exacerbated by acid rain. Some claim that cuticular breakdown is occurring on the leaf surface, due to acid rain, thus increasing the accessibility of the leaf to a germinating Discula spore.
2. Computers
3. Philosophy and Science
Torino impact scale
4. History
A pukao is the red stone headgear on top of some of the Easter island statues. Therefore you would be on Easter Island anywhere between AD 1200 and AD 1600 as archeologist often disagree on the dates

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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War IX - battle 12
1. Forestry
Below are two groups of plants:
   
        TREES                ANNUALS AND PERENNIALS

        Serviceberry         Red clover
        Red Bud              Vetch
        Apple                Strawberry
        Honey Locust         Rose
        Black Cherry         Soy bean
They are grouped based on form of the plant (tree/non tree). Please put these plants in two groups of five on a different basis and explain your reasoning.
see Answer
2. Computers
A CPU can schedule transfers from and to peripherals by polling or by use of interrupts. Discuss each method in terms of advantages and disadvantages.
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
What is this?


see Answer
4. History
When and where was the BMAC civilization?
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
Try this:
    **LEGUME family**        **ROSE family**
     Red Bud                  Serviceberry
     Honey Locust             Apple
     Red Clover               Black Cherry
     Vetch                    Strawberry
     Soybean                  Rose
2. Computers
Polling peripherals means, basically, that the CPU goes around and asks peripherals whether they have data to be received. This isn't terribly efficient for interactive situations, because response time can be very slow, and there is a lot of wasted "energy" on the part of the CPU as most of the time its peripherals will not have anything to be received. Interrupts allow the peripherals to tell the CPU when they have data to send, and the CPU can take a break to deal with them - the only peripherals who need service - in turn. The response time utilizing interrupts over polling is much increased, as is the amount of source code required to deal with constant I/O.
The CPU communicates with all other devices, including the keyboard, mouse, modem, printers, etc. It is the responsibility of the CPU to process any request coming via one of the devices from the user, or to instruct the device. Many of these devices are relatively slow, especially those that form the user interface, such as a mouse or keyboard. The two methods to process these requests and instructions are polling, and interrupts. With polling, the CPU stops whatever it might be processing, at regular intervals, to check each connected device, as to whetehr any intervention is required. This is a very ineffective method, since this checking takes up substantial processing time. The use of interrupts is a much more efficient method. This allows the CPU to continuously process its "main task". If a device now needs some form of intervention from the CPU, it sends some form of an alarm to the CPU. The CPU then interrupts its current activity and handles the request from the interrupting device. In an ideal situation, all devices would probably work via interrupts. However, on a PC, there are only a few interrupts available for use by peripherals, so some devices are required to operate by polling. This unfortunately wastes time, but it sometimes needs to be done. Also, some modern devices could be extremely fast, so an interrupt-driven driver would be unnecessary, even if interrupts were available.
3. Philosophy and Science
This is a map of some of the "biomorphs" found at Nazca, Peru. These drawings are huge representations of animals and geometric figures, constructed by pre-Incan civilization some 2200 years ago, most probably for some sort of religious purpose.
See http://www.unmuseum.org/nazca.htm
4. History
The Bactrian-Margian Archaeological Complex was a Bronze Age civilization that existed in what is today North Afghanistan and Turkmenistan in ca. 1900- 1500 B.C. The people of this area are considered to be one of the roots of the modern Indian people.
http://www.iht.com/articles/19801.htm explains that archaeologists have given the culture the name "Bactria Margiana Archaeology Complex", or BMAC, after the ancient Greek names of two regions it encompasses.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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War IX - battle 11
1. Forestry
The lines A-B and A-C on the map below are exactly the same length. If I want to exercise to burn the maximum number of calories and I am standing at A, should I walk to B or to C?


see Answer
2. Computers
Please order the computers below by date of introduction:
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
When I was in high school and college there were no electronic calculators. I used a couple of mechanical devices to perform the same functions and became somewhat adept at their use. One was an instrument used to add and subtract by means of sliding beads. The other was an instrument to multiply and divide by means of sliding wooden or plastic panels marked with logarithmic scales. What were these two instruments?
see Answer
4. Culture
What is the relationship between Galatea and Eliza Doolittle?
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
While each of the two paths covers the same "horizontal distance", the two paths have very different profiles, which are indicated by the contours. The path from A to B starts off on a peak of altitude over 1340 m (I have used metres, but this could be in feet or yards?), drops relatively gradually to 1300 m, before climbing back to approximately 1360 m - a total drop of only 40 m, combined with a climb of 60 m. In contrast, from A to C, one goes down a steep decline into the valley at 1020 m, and then climbs, again steeply, to 1340 m - a drop of 340 m followed by a climb of 320 m. Thus, AC would burn more calories.
You'll get a lot more exercise walking from A to C. The map shown is a contour map, showing changing elevation of land. All points along a line are at the same elevation. Lines far apart show a very slow rate of change of elevation in that direction, and lines closer together show a rapid change in elevation. The route from A to B shows a fairly flat route, and the route from A to C depicts traveling downhill and then uphill, which will burn a lot more calories.
Although the distances are equal on the map, you'd actually cover more ground walking from A to C and you'd also be doing more work because of the steeper slopes that you'd encounter.
2. Computers
http://www.komkon.org/fms/comp/misc/List.txt has the most comprehensive list of digital computers I could find on the Web.
  1. Colossus Mark 1 (1943) (1941)?
  2. ENIAC (1946)
  3. IBM 701 (1953)
  4. Burroughs 220 (1958)
  5. IBM 360/40 (1965)
  6. Honeywell 60 (1974)
  7. IBM 5100 (1975)
  8. Tandy TRS 80 (1977)
  9. Cray 1 (1979) (1976)?
  10. IBM PC (1982) (1981)?
I think I found your exact reference page, http://www.cs.ucf.edu/~bmiller/history_2.html. I only point this out because I disagree with the date for the Cray - I found numerous references (granted, of varying credibility) that place the introduction of the Cray 1 in 1975-6. But for the sake of the continuity, my answer is 1979, mostly because this reference page was the only one that had all of your question's models listed.
3. Philosophy and Science
The two instruments are, respectively, the abacus and the slide rule. http://www.det.bhtafe.edu.au/staff/fgd/comparch/topic1page1.html is a web site which describes these two as well as many other mechanical computing devices..
The first instrument is the abacus, a series of beads strung on parallel wires where each bead has an assigned value and a place (1s, 10s, 100s, etc.). Since the location of the bead gives its value, a few beads can represent large numbers.
The second instrument is the slide rule. Slide rules are used to multiply, divide, find roots and powers, perform trigonometric functions and operations involving logarithms. The modern slide rule has three basic parts: the main body of the rule, known as the stock (or stator or body), the movable part, known as the slide, and a moveable cursor (or indicator) made of clear glass or plastic.
4. Culture
Galatea is a character in the Greek myth "Pygmalion". Eliza Doolittle's character is the parallel of Galatea in George Bernard Shaw's play "Pygmalion" which was inspired by the myth.
In the myth, Pygmalion sculpted a lifelike statue of a woman and named it Galatea. The statue was so beautiful that he fell in love with it. Aphrodite, the goddess of love, brought the statue to life and he was able to marry her.
In the play, Eliza Doolittle is a common flower girl. Henry Higgins undertakes the task of teaching her the manners and speech of a lady. Like Pygmalion with Galatea, he molds her to be his ideal of womanhood.
The moral: gentlemen, be careful what you seek -- you may just get it.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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War IX - battle 10
1. Forestry
Which one of the following does not belong and why?
  • Robinia pseudoacacia
  • Fagus grandifolia
  • Ginkgo biloba
  • Magnolia grandiflora
  • Juglans nigra
  • Morus alba
  • Acer rubrum
  • Larix decidua

see Answer
2. Computers
What is the ascii sum of the bytes in the character string, "Easter"?
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
What trait do Golden rice and Starlink corn share?
see Answer
4. Culture
Why did the Tennessee Stud's green eyes turn blue?
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
Larix decidua, because it is the only one on the list susceptible to Gypsy Moth. The other species are either resistant or immune. See
http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~luca/gm/fulltree.htm
Note from Duane: Although this is correct I expected two other answers:
Ginko because it is the only tree on the list not native to North America or
Magnolia because it is the only evergreen on the list.
2. Computers
612 (One needs to be careful about distinguishing between the upper case "E" (with ASCII value 69) and the lower case "e" (with value 101).)
or, 69 (E) + 97 (a) + 115 (s) + 116 (t) + 101 (e) + 114 (r)
3. Philosophy and Science
They are both genetically engineered grains that are causing a stink among Greenpeace and other global action and agricultural advocacy groups. Golden rice has been enriched with provitamin A, which has been suggested (and disputed) could impact deficiencies of this vitamin in malnourished peoples, and Starlink corn has been enriched with a protein derived from a bacterial species that acts in a pesticidal role.
4. Culture
" 'cause he was a-dreamin' of a sweetheart too" (presumably the Tennessee mare.)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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War IX - battle 9
1. Forestry
This Tree of the mulberry family is unique in its method of growth. From its center, broad branches extend outward sprouting aerial roots that hang down. When they grow long enough to reach the ground, they take root and thicken, becoming wooden pillars. By spreading in this way, a single tree can become a forest.

What tree is this?
see Answer
2. Computers
There are a number of programs and methods to let me convert my midi music file to an MP3 file to play on my MP3 player or to burn onto a CD. However, I cannot convert my MP3 sound files to midi files. Why not?
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
They are called "Killer Lakes" because, in 1986, the one pictured below killed 1700 people two years after the other lake had killed 37 people. What are the names of these two lakes? Where are they located? How do they kill people?


see Answer
4. Logic
Three business men - Smith, Robinson, and Jones - all live in the Leeds- Sheffield district. Three railwaymen of similar names live in the same district. The business man, Robinson, and the guard live at Sheffield; the business man, Jones, and the stoker live at Leeds; while the business man, Smith, and the railway engineer live half-way between Leeds and Sheffield. The guard's namesake earns $100,000 per annum, and the engineer earns exactly 1/3 as much as the business man living nearest to him. Finally, the railwayman, Smith, beats the stoker at billards. What is the engineer's name?
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
Ficus bengalensis, or Ficus indica (common name Banyan) of the family Moraceae (common name Mulberry) has numerous aerial roots that, growing down from the branches, take root in the soil and form prop roots or secondary trunks. As the tree ages, the original trunk decays, and the tree breaks up into several sections, the props becoming separate trunks for the various sections.
2. Computers
As yet there is no reliable software for converting digital audio into MIDI. It's like trying to write a program that can take a plate full of cooked scrambled eggs and then trying to unscramble not only the eggs and other ingredients but also the exact processed followed during preparation and cooking. MIDI is only a representation of which notes, their volume, which instrument it was played on etc., whereas MP3 is the result you get from those notes. In effect an MP3 file is a bunch of cooked scrambled eggs. There are some experimental programs that might be able to convert some of your instrumental audio into midi (not possible with vocals though as this is one ingredient that can't as yet be unscrambled). Firstly you will need to convert your MP3 file to a WAV file, then you will need to use a program such as GAMA to try and convert your WAV file to a MIDI file.
3. Philosophy and Science
These lakes are Lakes Nyos and Monoun, located in Cameroon in W Africa. They are leathal because they can vent a large amount of CO2, which deprives the body of oxygen by binding to hemoglobin. How and why these lakes do this is not clear. The CO2 stored in the lake may be accumulated from groundwater which has had contact with CO2-rich gas of magmatic origin.
You may find additional information and more pictures at
http://www.biology.lsa.umich.edu/~gwk/research/nyos.html
4. Logic
Smith.
Brief explanation:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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War IX - battle 8
1. Forestry
What genus of Pinaceae is deciduous?
see Answer
2. Computers
Which one of these does not belong and what are the rest?
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
What is the significance of the Higgs boson?
see Answer
4. Geography
Which one of these does not belong and what is the name given to the rest as a group?
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
The genus of Pinaceae trees that is deciduous is Larix. Larix includes such trees as the larch (a Monty Python favorite), and the Tamarac.
2. Computers
This is questionable because there are several different categories that each can fall into. The most obvious at first that might not belong is DrWatson, where the rest are all viruses or worms, and DrWatson is a virus cleaner. However, DrWatson is also a virus that corrupts windows, and thus another that might not belong is the LinuxRamen virus, which corrupts Linux files, and is the only one that is not a Windows operating system virus.
Dr Watson does not belong -- it is a windows diagnostics program. the rest are computer viruses.
3. Philosophy and Science
Higgs bosons are "massive scalar mesons whose existence is predicted by certain unified gage theories of the weak and electromagnetic reactions".
The significance of these are that they are the proposed reason for mass of everything. They are what gives everything in the universe its mass. It is the main factor which will prove or disprove Higgs Mechanism, and it also is the theorized particle that gives all other particles (electrons, protons, etc.) their masses too.
See: http://hepwww.ph.qmw.ac.uk/epp/higgs.html
4. Geography
The one in the group that does not belong is Clingman's Dome. The remaining seven are known as the "Seven Summits", which are the highest peaks on each continent. One of the peaks that is questioned over with climbers is Carstensz Pyramid, which is rivaled with by Kosciuszko since that is on the Australian mainland, and Carstensz is in Irian Jaya, which occupies the western half of New Guinea.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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War IX - battle 7
1. Forestry
On a BAF 10 point sampling timber cruise each 20 inch dbh tree measured represents how many such trees per acre?
see Answer
2. Computers
A 24 bit image is composed of the following three colors in RGB format:
255,0,0 and 255,255,255 and 0,0,255.
What are these colors?
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
In a TV movie in which Earth is threatened by an asteroid, the Hubble Space Telescope is turned toward the asteroid to transmit real time video of the approaching threat. What is wrong with this scenario?
see Answer
4. Math
Find the product of the following: (x-a)(x-b)(x-c) . . . (x-z)?
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
On a BAF 10 point sampling timber sampling cruise, each 20 inch dbh represents approximately 4.58 trees per acre.
Expansion Factor = Basal Area Factor / Basal Area (tree)
EF = BAF / BA(tree)
BAF = 10 (given)
BA(tree) = (3.14 * dbh^2) / (4 * 144) = .005454 * dbh^2
BA(tree) = .005454 * 20^2 = 2.1816
EF = 10 / 2.1816 = 4.58
See:
http://forestry.about.com/science/forestry/library/weekly/aa012299.htm
and
Forest Measurements from a field forester's perspective.
and
http://www.forestry.caf.wvu.edu/faculty/coble/FMAN122/Lecture7/LectureWeek7.htm
2. Computers
RGB refers to the Red Green Blue scheme for colors, and 255 is the extreme for each color. In 24 bit a (255, 0, 0) color is red, (255, 255, 255) is white, and (0, 0, 255) is blue.
3. Philosophy and Science
The problem with that scenario is that the Hubble Telescope cannot do live picture feed. It takes photographs and does not have video cameras or the like to do a live picture feed. Also, because of the overall distance between receivers and the Hubble itself, it wouldn't be "live" because there would be some delay allowing for the radio waves to travel.
See:
http://www.badastronomy.com/bad/tv/doomsday.html
4. Math
Zero (since one term will be (x-x)=0).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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War IX - battle 6
1. Forestry
This fast growing tree is an imported ornamental species in the United States. Escaped trees are sometimes found growing wild in forests in the eastern part of the country. What species is it?


see Answer
2. Computers
I may want to include some of the symbols below in a Microsoft Word file? Where can I find these symbols for that purpose?


see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
What is the Casimir force?
see Answer
4. Culture
Who was this novice artist, songwriter and singer?

Click here for a Real Audio clue.

see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
The tree is a Princess Tree, Paulownia tomentosa, and is currently in 25 Eastern states in the US from Maine to Texas. It's wood is clear and is prized by Japanese because it is able to make the clear windows in Japanese houses.
2. Computers
For the computer font that you are looking for, it is mainly wingdings and wingdings2. All you need to do is change the font from whatever it is currently set on (usually it's Times New Roman), and switch it to one or the other of the wingdings. Also, some of the symbols also appear in the font Monotype Sorts.
3. Philosophy and Science
The Casimir effect is a small attractive force which acts between two close parallel unchanged conducting plates. It is due to quantum vancuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. In the Casimir force, zero-point radiation exerts forces on two unchanged parallel metal plates. Outside the plates, all wavelengths of radiation are allowed. Between plates only certain discrete wavelengths are allowed. If the plates are close enough together, this differable produces a measurable inward force.
See http://www.math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/casimir.html
4. Culture
The novice artist, songwriter and singer is the Singing Nun, who is also known as Sister Luc Gabrielle (nee Jeanine Decker). She was a Dominican nun at the Fichermont Convent in Waterloo, Belgium. Her first hit was Dominique, and then she later changed her name again to Sister Luc Dominique. The song also appeared on the 1966 MGM film "The Singing Nun" which starred Debbie Reynolds. The picture itself is off of the front of her album Dominique, which was released in 1963 by Philip's Record Company.
See http://www.findagrave.com/pictures/11350.html
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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War IX - battle 5
1. Forestry
I found this list of species of Virginia forest trees. They were in three groups. I removed the headings of each group. By what silvicultural characteristic where these species divided into these groups and what should be the heading on each group?
    sugar maple           red oak            black walnut                    
       beech             white oak           black cherry                    
     basswood            black oak           chestnut oak                    
     dogwood            white pine            scarlet oak                    
     hornbeam              ash               yellow poplar                   
     red spruce           hickory             sweetgum                       
    rhododendron         red maple           Virginia pine                   
                        sweet birch           pitch pine                     
                         sycamore         Table mountain pine                
                         sourwood             red cedar                      
                         blackgum            black locust                    
                         Fraser fir           sassafras                      

see Answer
2. Computers
I found a Windows '98 program furnished as a part of Windows '98 by Microsoft that gave me this list of tools I could use to fix, maintain, optimize and tweak Windows '98:
    DirectX Diagnostic Tool     
    Windows Report Tool         
    Update Wizard Uninstall     
    System File Checker         
    Signature Verification Tool 
    Registry Checker            
    Automatic Skip Driver Agent 
    Dr. Watson                  
    System Configuration Utility
    ScanDisk                    
    Version Conflict Manager    
Where did I find this list?
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
From about 1935 to 1948 a debate raged among biologists in the USSR. The man who was most responsible for winning the debate and setting Soviet science back for years started something called the "vernalisation movement". He and his followers announced a new theory of heredity that rejected the existence of genes and held that the basis of heredity did not lie in some special self- reproducing substance. On the contrary, the cell itself, in their view, developed into an organism, and there was no part of it not subject to evolutionary development. Heredity was based on the interaction between the organism and its environment, through the internalisation of external conditions. They thus recognised no distinction between genotype and phenotype.
The science of genetics was denounced as reactionary, bourgeois, idealist and formalist. It was held to be contrary to the Marxist philosophy of dialectical materialism. Its stress on the relative stability of the gene was supposedly a denial of dialectical development as well as an assault on materialism. Its emphasis on internality was thought to be a rejection of the interconnectedness of every aspect of nature. Its notion of the randomness and indirectness of mutation was held to undercut both the determinism of natural processes and man's ability to shape nature in a purposeful way.
This man's quotes include: Who was this pseudo-scientist?
see Answer
4. Logic
You are blindfolded before a table. On the table are a very large number of pennies. You are told 100 of the pennies are heads up and the rest are tails up. How can you create two subgroups of pennies, each with the same number of heads facing up? The subgroups will not necessarily be the same size. Assume you cannot tell if a penny is heads up by feel. (You are wearing gloves.)
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
Shade tolerance. The headings should read (from left to right): Shade-Tolerant, Intermediate, Shade-Intolerant. For more information, see http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/forestry/420-144/ch3.html
2. Computers
system information (msinfo32.exe) -- the tools menu
3. Philosophy and Science
The man you are referring to is TD Lysenko (1898 - 1976). Among the things discussed in his attitude towards science is this little gem from a page devoted to this era of soviet science:
Lysenko's fame as the sort of man who would achieve results continued to spread. With it came a sympathetic hearing for whatever theoretical views he chose to express, no matter how vague or how unsubstantiated. Lysenko's practical achievements were extremely difficult to assess. His methods were seriously lacking in rigour, to put it mildly. His habit was to report only successes. His results were based on extremely small samples, inaccurate records, and the almost total absence of control groups. An early mistake in calculation, which caused comment among other specialists, made him extremely negative toward the use of mathematics in science.
also see:
4. Logic
Set aside any subgroup of 100 pennies, and flip them all over. That subgroup and the subgroup of the remaining pennies will now have the same number of heads.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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War IX - battle 4
1. Forestry
The largest known living organism on earth lives in the western United States. What and where is it?
see Answer
2. Computers
If I sit down at my computer and using a word processor begin writing a text document with this first line:
#VRML V1.0 ascii
What type of document am I writing? What is its purpose? How is it to be used? What type of program is necessary to use it?
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
What is wrong with the following list: ?
see Answer
4. Biology
According to Hoyle and Wickramasinghe, what may be the origin of life on earth?
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
This would be the Armillaria fungus, which now covers 2200 acres in Malheur National Forest, Oregon.
The largest known living organism is a fungus, scientific name Armillaria ostoyae. The following is a quote from the Guinnes Book of World Records web site:
[This fungus is] growing in the Malheur National Forest in the Blue
Mountains of Eastern Oregon covers an area equivalent to around 1,220
soccer fields. The species of fungus (Armillaria ostoyae) is usually 
known as the honey mushroom. 
See:
2. Computers
When you start a document with #VRML V1.0 ascii, you are writing in the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). This is a language for describing multi-participant interactive simulations -- virtual worlds networked via the global Internet and hyper-linked with the World Wide Web. All aspects of virtual world display, interaction and internetworking can be specified using VRML. It is to be used as a World Wide Web browser of sorts, where it is hoped to become the standard language for interactive simulation within the World Wide Web. VRML itself is more designed as a graphics language where HTML is more of a text language. To use the language, you need a web browser, and also (as I'm told by a bunch of CS majors) a plug-in. More information can be found at http://www.vrml.org/VRML1.0/vrml10c.html
3. Philosophy and Science
All of these are amino acids, of which there are 20 of them. However, the last amino acid should be valine, and not uridine as the list has.
4. Biology
The Hoyle and Wickramasinghe theory on the origin of life is in the class of theories known as 'panspermia'. This refers to theories that life on earth originated from outside the planet. In the specific case of these two, they point to evidence of very red objects in the solar system, such as Kuiper-Belt objects and some of the jovian moons, as circumstantial evidence of the action of bacteria. If this coloration indeed indicates the activity of bacteria, and this occurs in the Kuiper-belt, then it is quite possible that a comet formed from this belt, if large enough (especially the tail) to intersect the earth's orbit, then such bacteria would very likely end up on on the earth's surface or oceans. On a related note, it has been established for some time that there are bacteria capable of withstanding intense levels of radiation, not occurring on earth. This would seem to indicate an adaption at some point to existence outside of the atmosphere. Also some scientist [I think Linus Pauling] felt there to be a correlation with cometary encounters (the tails again) and occurances of the common cold, or cold-like symptoms. Interesting stuff.
The basis of Hoyle and Wickramasinghe's theory of the origin of life is the idea that with their calculations, the probability that an enzyme could be produced by shuffling amino acids is no better than one in 10^6900.
See:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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War IX - battle 3
1. Forestry
The bird below is a resident of Kentucky woodlands whose population is small and endangered. The insect pictured and enlarged at the right is about the size of a grain of rice. Why is it feared that the activities of this small insect may cause the extinction of the population of this bird in Kentucky? What species is the bird and the insect?


see Answer
2. Computers
If I have an Ultra ATA/100 IDE hard disk drive, how many conductors must I have in my hard disk cable for maximum performance?
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
Albert Einstein is said by mathematicians to have an Erdös number of 3. What does this mean?
see Answer
4. History
According to legend what is the connection among Pope John VIII, the sella stercoraria and Via Sacra, the street avoided by popes?
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
The bird is the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker, Picoides borealis Veilliot, and its nemesis is the Southern Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis.
The Southern Pine Beetle is killing the pine trees in which the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker nests.
For more information, see
2. Computers
With an Ultra ATA/ 100 IDE Hard Drive, it is at its peak performance with a cable that has 80 conductors (instead of the original 40 conductor cables). The 80-conductor cable retains the same connector configuration as the standard 40-pin cable, but has ground lines interleaved between all signal lines. In other words, the 40 new lines are all ground (which act as shields) and no new signals are transferred.
For more information, see http://www.dell.com/us/en/biz/topics/vectors_2000-ata100.htm
3. Philosophy and Science
Einstein's Erdös no. 3 means that he has co-authored a paper with someone who in turn co-authored a paper with someone who themselves also co-authored a paper with Paul Erdös. Here's a definition/example of what an Erdös Number is:
Paul Erdös's number is 0. Erdös's co-authors have Paul Erdös number 1. People other than Erdös who have written a joint paper with someone with Erdös number 1 but not with Erdös have Erdös number 2, and so on. If there is no chain of co-authorships connecting someone with Erdös, then that person's Erdös number is said to be infinite.
What does this mean? In part, it reflects Erdös's influence in mathematics and prolific career (1500 papers, some yet to be published) with 500+ coauthors... It's also an example of a collaboration graph (see website above for more on that); but, most importantly, it is the mathematicians' answer to the "Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon" association game.
For more information, see
4. History
Pope John VII is also known as Pope Joan (circa 855AD), who "was" a female. In legend, she was educated and thus disguised herself as a man. She later became a monk, and then the Pope because of her knowledge.
"In 1276, after ordering a thorough search of the papal records, Pope John XX changed his title to John XXI in official recognition of Joan's reign as Pope John VIII. ... There is also circumstantial evidence difficult to explain if there was never a female Pope. One example is the so-called chair exam, part of the medieval papal consecration ceremony for almost six hundred years. Each newly elected Pope after Joan sat on the sella stercoraria (literally, "dung seat"), pierced in the middle like a toilet, where his genitals were examined to give proof of his manhood. Afterward the examiner solemnly informed the gathered people, "Mas nobis nominus est" -- "Our nominee is a man." Only then was the Pope handed the keys of St. Peter. This ceremony continued until the sixteenth century. ... Another interesting piece of circumstantial evidence is the "shunned street." The Patriarchium, the Pope's residence and episcopal cathedral (now St. John Lateran) is located on the opposite side of Rome from St. Peter's Basilica; papal processions therefore frequently traveled between them. A quick perusal of any map of Rome will show that the Via Sacra (now the Via S. Giovanni) is by far the shortest and most direct route between these two locations -- and so in fact it was used for centuries (hence the name Via Sacra, or "sacred road"). This is the street on which Joan reportedly gave birth to her stillborn child. Soon afterward, papal processions deliberately began to turn aside from the Via Sacra."
For more information see http://www.dreamscape.com/morgana/popejoan.htm
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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War IX - battle 2
1. Forestry
Concerning logging tools:
For what do we use a spud and a timbershave?
How is a peavey different than a canthook?
What do we call a canthook with a wooden or steel rocker installed at the lower end of the handle opposite the lip and what is the purpose of this?
see Answer
2. Computers
The three file systems commonly used under Windows platforms are FAT (file allocation table), FAT32 (32-bit file allocation table) and NTfs (NT File System). How do these systems differ and what characteristics of the FAT (not FAT32) file system limits it to 2GB partitions?
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
I need to pump water from a stream in the mountains to my cabin on a hill above the stream. There is no electricity available and no road to the stream giving access to deliver fossil fuels. Due to the protection of the hills wind power is not an option. Without using wind, electricity, gas, oil, coal, or wood what is the best type of water pump for my needs and what source of power will it use?
see Answer
4. Math
How does Simpson's Paradox apply to the December 18 meeting of the Electoral College in the United States to elect the President of the country?
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
A bark spud is a steel wedge used to strip bark off logs. Timbershaves are used to shave bark off with a blade.
The cant hook is a pole with a hook attached to its end. It is used primarily on land to role logs frontwards or backwards.
The peavey is like a cant hook but with a point at its end. It is primarily used on the river to turn and handle logs as they floated downstream.
A canthook with a rocker at the lower end of the handle opposite the lip is called a log jack. It is used to hold logs off the ground at an ideal angle for sawing.
2. Computers
The main difference between FAT and FAT32 is that a FAT entry is 16 bits in length while FAT32 entries are 32 bits. NTfs has several added features, such as increased fault tolerance, larger partition size, a built-in security system, and native support for file compression.
The FAT file system is limited to 2 GB partitions because:
FAT is designed to contain 64 KB of information about file locations. Using FAT, the maximum cluster size is 32K. Therefore, the maximum logical drive size is calculated as 32K x 64K = 2048 MB = 2 GB.
3. Philosophy and Science
The High Lifter is a powerful water pump designed to move water uphill without using gasoline or electricity. It is a gravity-powered, piston pump that uses the power of water moving downhill to lift a portion of that water above the source. Output depends on fall, lift, and flow; the average is 400 - 800 gallons per day (GPD) and the maximum is 750 - 1,500 GPD. High Lifter is capable of 1,000 foot lifts.
See http://www.marksnyderelectric.com/catalog/waterpoweredpumps.html
Actually this type of pump is called a Ram pump.
4. Math
Simpson's paradox occurs when one variable confounds another so that when its affect is removed a very different conclusion is reached.
In the case of the December 18 meeting of the Electoral College, George W. Bush was elected president of the United States based on the number of votes he received in the Electoral College. This seems to indicate that he received a majority of the vote. However, the majority of the popular vote actually went to Al Gore.
The popular vote is hidden by the Electoral College votes. When the election is considered without the electoral college, a different conclusion is reached - that Al Gore should be the president elect.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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War IX - battle 1
1. Forestry
During a particularly dry fire season with a shortage of fire fighting personnel I saw this forest fire from a plane about 30 minutes after it had started at about 2 pm. I knew it would take me about two hours to land, get a fire crew to the fire and walk to the top of the mountain to begin constructing a fire line with hand tools to contain the fire. Which of the colored fire lines did I plan to construct? Discuss the disadvantages of the others.


see Answer
2. Computers
Joe has two computers connected in a network with a ten foot long crossover cable. Working late one night he decides to move one computer to a location fifteen feet from the other computer. Unfortunately his network cable will not now reach from the other computer. Joe searches the office and cannot find a cable longer than ten feet. However, he does find that there is a package of five ten foot crossover cables and a package of five standard network cable couplers in a closet. Can Joe connect his computers so that they will be able to network using these items without rewiring any of them? If so, specifically what items will he finally use to connect the computers? If he cannot connect the computers, why not?
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
What was "Big Ear"?
see Answer
4. Math
Steve takes three identical blank cards. He makes a red mark on each side of one. He makes a black mark on each side of another. On the third he marks red on one side and black on the other. He then mixes the cards in a hat and has Joe draw a card and place it on the table in such a way that no one sees the bottom side of the card. The upper side of the card drawn has a red mark. Steve says to Joe, "Obviously we are not dealing with the black-black card. That one is clearly still in the hat. We definitely have either the red-black card or the red-red card. We shuffled fairly and drew at random, so it is just as likely to be one of these as the other. I will therefore bet you even money that the other side is red." Should Joe take this bet? Why or why not?
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry - unanswered in War IX
The red line is the best place to construct a fire containment line. The orange line is so close to the fire that the fire would have burned past the line before the crew could get to the fire. The green line is far enough from the fire on the flanks but is so close to the head of the fire, which is the fastest moving part of the fire, that it could never be constructed there. The blue line which would be constructed on the opposite side of the mountain at the head of the fire could not be held because it would be constructed on the slope below the fire. This is called undercutting the fire and it invites dead trees and logs to fall and roll across the fire line resetting the fire behind the containment line. The yellow line is too far from the fire and thus sacrifices more forest to the fire than is necessary.
2. Computers
Joe can connect the computers using 3 crossover cables and 2 cable couplers.
(computer-crossover-coupler-crossover-coupler-crossover-computer)
3. Philosophy and Science
According to the Big Ear Radio Observatory's website, the Big Ear Radio Telescope (now demolished) was a Kraus-type radio telescope which covered an area larger than three football fields.
The telescope was famous for discovering some of the most distant known objects in the universe, as well as for the "Wow!" Signal and the longest-running SETI (Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence) project entered into the Guinness Book of Records. This unique probe of the depths of the cosmos was located in Delaware, Ohio.
4. Math
Joe should not take this bet. If we disregard the black card, we are left with 4 possible sides, 1 black and 3 red. Since the side that is showing is red, that leaves 3 possible sides, 1 black and 2 red. That means that it is twice as likely that the bottom side is red.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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Standings in the War - IX

Nicholas A Godlewski - aeronautical engineering student at WPI (Worcester Polytechnic Institute). - 1140 points
Lisa E. Hayes - 24-year old computer programmer from Atlanta - 1060 points
Zaheer Jhetam - Manager: Logistics and Quality - South Africa - 880 points
Drew Smith - Instructor, School of Library and Information Science, University of South Florida, Tampa - 540 points
Russell Flowers - 520 points
Stephanie Bilbao - html programmer in Chicago, aspiring to first be a student, and then a teacher - 480 points
Rahul Nair - Computer science student from Hindustan College of Engineering in Chennai, India - 360 points
Steven Skelton - Admin Tech State CRCG Office, Texas - 180 points
Anne Lurie - Retired in Raleigh, North Carolina; likes birdwatching, genealogy, research, and surfing the Internet! - 140 points
 
 

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Last revised August 17, 2001.

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Duane Bristow (oldky@kyphilom.com)

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