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War of the Minds - Archive - War XII

An Internet Contest


We have a winner of War XII

Alexis Darrasse - A young Greek studying Applied Mathematics in Bordeaux, France has accumulated 780 points.


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Archives - War XII

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Archives of Previous Battles - War XII

War XII - battle 8
1. Forestry

Carotene (the pigment found in carrots and corn) causes maples, birches, and poplars to turn yellow. The brilliant reds and oranges in this fall landscape are due to anthocyanins. Tannins give the oak a distinctively brown color and is the final persistent color most leaves turn before becoming part of the forest floor. Why do we see these colors in tree leaves only in the autumn?
see Answer
2. Computers
This law professor at Stanford who once clerked for a Supreme Court Justice, and helped Judge Thomas Penfield Jackson with the case of "Department of Justice vs. Microsoft" will in October 2002 argue before the U. S. Supreme Court against the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act also known as the Mickey Mouse Preservation Act. He is considered a leading expert in cyberlaw and has written a couple of books on the subject. Please identify this proponent of cyber freedom and the books he authored.
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science

Where would we find the world's largest known crystals?
"There are huge selenite crystals the size of pine trees, 30 to 50 feet high, with some weighing in excess of 10 tons."
They are protected from vandalism by temperatures hovering near 150 degrees F. with 100% humidity. A person can only stay in that environment for six to ten minutes.
see Answer
4. Words
Which anagram does not belong and why?
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
The reason plant leaves change color in Autumn is that the lack of sunlight leads to a decrease in the production of chlorophyll, the chemical that gives rise to most of the greenness of leaves. Carotene and Anthocyanins are also produced by leaves throughout the year but are not concentrated enough to change a leaves' color to green until the amount of chlorophyll decreases to a certain degree. Carotene causes leaves to appear yellow; Anthocyanins causes leaves to appear red. The kind of colors you get and the intensisty of them depend on many factors so there can be a great range of colors from these basic pigments (GRY is suppose). here is an excellent introductory page on the subject with a link to a fall foliage "hotline" for people interested in fall leaf changes:
http://scifun.chem.wisc.edu/chemweek/fallcolr/fallcolr.html
2. Computers
You are talking about Lawrence Lessig. He has written "Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace" (June 2000) and "The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World" (November 2002).
For more info:
3. Philosophy and Science
They are in a cavern in Mexico located near the Penoles-Naica silver, lead and zinc mine south of Chihuahua.
For more info:
http://www.railriders.com/adventures/cave.html
4. Words
TOGA - GOAT
KEDYON - DONKEY
EPHES - SHEEP
OSHUE - HOUSE
ORESH - HORSE
The one not fitting is OSHUE, it's not the name of an animal.
This shows up as an item on a IQ-test:
http://www.geocities.com/Area51/Cavern/4118/iqtest.html
 
 
 
 

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War XII - battle 7
1. Forestry
A forest manager decided to set up a continuous forest inventory system in which permanent plots are resampled on a periodic basis, such as every five years, to give ongoing reports on the status of the forest. He planned 250 permanent plots on a 60,000 acre forest. He said that the plots should be conspicuously marked on the ground so that they could easily be found for each periodic forest inventory. A mensurationist suggested to him that marking the plots in such as way was probably not such a good idea. Why not?
see Answer
2. Computers
LBA, ATA, Landing Zone, Int 13h. To what are we referring? Please define or describe each of these.
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
According to the Ancient Greeks, there are three women who write the book of life.
One is the spinner, one is the weaver, and one cuts the cloth.
What names are given to them by the Greeks individually and collectively? (Use Greek terms.)
see Answer
4. Literature
The northern lights have seen queer sights! The queerest they ever did see was the night on the marge of Lake LaBarge when what happened? Give references?
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
The efficiency of the permanent plot technique is based on the fact that once installed these permanent plots are subject to the same kind and intensity of treatment as applied to the forest surrounding them. Doing so ensures that data from the plots reflects the overall management of the forest. If the plots are marked they will not be treated the same way, so the results will not be accurate.
2. Computers
Hard drive technologies.
  1. LBA : Logical Block Addressing. Each sector on a disc is given an LBA number. This is a unique number to allow the disk to find and store data.
    Logical Block Addressing, replaced CHS (Cylinder Head Sector) Addressing
    See: http://www.pcguide.com/ref/hdd/bios/modesLBA-c.html
  2. ATA : Acronym for AT Attachment. There are multiple levels of ATA standards including the base-level 16-bit IDE, ATA-2 (Enhanced IDE) and Ultra ATA.
    Interface for Hard drives, CDROM's etc to connect to the motherboard.
    See: http://www.pcguide.com/ref/hdd/if/ide/index.htm
  3. Landing Zone : Area on a disk surface which has been roughened to allow the head to stop over it without sticking to it. This allows the drive to spin up easier during "power on"
    A non-data area on the disk's inner cylinder where the heads can rest when the power is off.
  4. Int 13h : This is the interupt that allows for the identification of the hard drive and data transfer through the ATA/IDE interface.
    Interrupt 19 (13 in hexadecimal is 19 in decimal) is a software that acts as the primary interface to the BIOS for accessing the Hard Disks.
    See: http://www.pcguide.com/ref/hdd/bios/biosInt13h-c.html
3. Philosophy and Science
This refers to the Moirai (three Fates): Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos.
Clotho spun the thread of life. Lacheis, the measurer, chose the lot that a person would have in life. Atropos, "she who cannot be turned," cut the thread of life, thus ending a person's life.
Their mother is the Goddess of Necessity, Themis.
See: http://www.loggia.com/myth/fates.html
4. Literature
The Northern Lights saw the cremation of gold miner, Sam McGee. From a poem by Robert Service.
See:
There are strange things done in the midnight sun
By the men who moil for gold,
And the arctic trails have their secret tales
That would make your blood run cold.
The northern lights have seen queer sights,
But the queerest they ever did see
Was the night on the marge of Lake LaBarge
I cremated Sam McGee.

Now, Sam McGee was from Tennessee
Where the cotton blooms and blows.
Why he left his home in the south to roam
'Round the pole, God only knows.
He was always cold, but the land of gold
Seemed to hold him like a spell,
Though he'd often say, in his homely way,
He'd sooner live in hell.

On a Christmas day we were mushing our way
Over the Dawson Trail.
Talk of your cold--through the parka's fold
It stabbed like a driven nail.
If our eyes we'd close, then the lashes froze
'Till sometimes we couldn't see.
It wasn't much fun, but the only one
To whimper was Sam McGee.

And that very night as we lay packed tight
In our robes beneath the snow,
And the dogs were fed, and the stars o'erhead
Were dancing heel and toe,
He turned to me, and "Cap", says he,
"I'll cash in this trip, I guess,
And if I do, I'm asking that you
Won't refuse my last request."

Well, he seemed so low I couldn't say no,
And he says with a sort of moan,
"It's the cursed cold, and it's got right hold
'Till I'm chilled clean through to the bone.
Yet 'ta'int being dead, it's my awful dread
Of the icy grave that pains,
So I want you to swear that, foul or fair,
You'll cremate my last remains."

A pal's last need is a thing to heed,
And I swore that I would not fail.
We started on at the streak of dawn,
But, God, he looked ghastly pale.
He crouched on the sleigh, and he raved all day
Of his home in Tennessee,
And before nightfall, a corpse was all
That was left of Sam McGee.

There wasn't a breath in that land of death
As I hurried, horror driven,
With a corpse half hid that I couldn't get rid
Because of a promise given.
It was lashed to the sleigh, and it seemed to say,
"You may tax your brawn and brains,
But you promised true, and it's up to you
To cremate those last remains."

Now, a promise made is a debt unpaid,
And the trail has its own stern code.
In the days to come, 'though my lips were dumb,
In my heart, how I cursed the load.
In the long, long night by the lone firelight
While the huskies 'round in a ring
Howled out their woes to the homeless snows
Oh, God, how I loathed the thing.

And every day that quiet clay
Seemed to heavy and heavier grow.
And on I went, though the dogs were spent
And the grub was getting low.
The trail was bad, and I felt half mad,
But I swore I would not give in,
And often I'd sing to the hateful thing,
And it hearkened with a grin.

'Till I came to the marge of Lake LaBarge,
And a derelict there lay.
It was jammed in the ice, and I saw in a trice
It was called the "Alice May".
I looked at it, and I thought a bit,
And I looked at my frozen chum,
Then, "Here", said I, with a sudden cry,
"Is my crematorium."

Some planks I tore from the cabin floor
And lit the boiler fire.
Some coal I found that was lying around
And heaped the fuel higher.
The flames just soared, and the furnace roared,
Such a blaze you seldom see.
Then I burrowed a hole in the glowing coal
And I stuffed in Sam McGee.

Then I made a hike, for I didn't like
To hear him sizzle so.
And the heavens scowled, and the huskies howled,
And the wind began to blow.
It was icy cold, but the hot sweat rolled
Down my cheek, and I don't know why,
And the greasy smoke in an inky cloak
Went streaking down the sky.

I do not know how long in the snow
I wrestled with gristly fear.
But the stars came out, and they danced about
'Ere again I ventured near.
I was sick with dread, but I bravely said,
"I'll just take a peek inside.
I guess he's cooked, and it's time I looked",
And the door I opened wide.

And there sat Sam, looking calm and cool
In the heart of the furnace roar.
He wore a smile you could see a mile,
And he said, "Please close that door.
It's fine in here, but I greatly fear
You'll let in the cold and storm.
Since I left Plumbtree down in Tennessee
It's the first time I've been warm.

There are strange things done in the midnight sun
By the men who moil for gold,
And the arctic trails have their secret tales
That would make your blood run cold.
The northern lights have seen queer sights,
But the queerest they ever did see
Was the night on the marge of Lake LaBarge
I cremated Sam McGee.

ROBERT SERVICE
 
 
 
 

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War XII - battle 6
1. Forestry
I can download from the internet a Digital Elevation Model before cruising a timber stand or mapping a forest area.
What is a DEM? Where would I get it?
How would I use it?
see Answer
2. Computers
What are DLL files?
What are INI files?
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
What type of compounds are glyceraldehyde and hyaluronic acid?
What is significant about these two specifically?
see Answer
4. Logic
There are 5 houses, each is a different colour
In each house lives a person of a different nationality.
These 5 owners all drink a certain beverage, smoke a certain brand of cigar and keep a certain pet.
No owner has the same pet, smokes the same brand of cigar or drinks the same drink as another owner.
  1. The Briton lives in a red house.
  2. The Swede keeps dogs as pets
  3. The Dane drinks tea
  4. The green house is on the left of the white house (they are also next door to each other)
  5. The green house owner drinks coffee
  6. The person who smokes Pall Mall rears birds
  7. The owner of the yellow house smokes Dunhill
  8. The man living in the house right in the center drinks milk
  9. The Norwegian lives in the first house
  10. The man who smokes Blend lives next to the one who keeps cats
  11. The man who keeps horses lives next to the man who smokes Dunhill
  12. The owner who smokes Blue Master drinks beer
  13. The German smokes Prince
  14. The Norwegian lives next to the blue house
  15. The man who smokes Blend has a neighbor who drinks water.
The question is: WHO KEEPS FISH?
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
A Digital Elevation Model consists of a sampled array of elevations for ground positions that are normally at regularly spaced intervals. You would get a DEM from the United States Geological Survey.
The USGS produces five different digital elevation products (7.5 Minute, 1-Degree, 2-Arc-Second, 15-Minute Alaska, and 7.5 Minute Alaska) with the assistance of other agencies including the Defense Mapping Agency.
An alternative source would be the US National Geophysical Data Center
One can use a visualization program such as ARC-INFO to create a 3-d visualization/map of an area using the data from the DEM. Using that visualization one could if they were a logger, (and they are trying to avoid >5 degree slope areas) determine the timber areas that could be harvested.
The DEM files may be used in the generation of graphics such as isometric projections displaying slope, direction of slope (aspect), and terrain profiles between designated points. They may also be combined with other data types such as stream location data and weather data to assist in forest fire control or they may be combined with remote sensing data to aid in the classification of vegetation. Applications include: (1) modeling terrain gravity data for use in locating energy resources, (2) determining the volume of proposed reservoirs, (3) calculating the amount of material removed during strip mining, (4) determining landslide probability, and (5) developing parameters for hydrologic models.
2. Computers
DLL means Dynamic Link Library. These files are used by various programs in Windows to perform common tasks. It is definitely *not* okay to delete or edit the DLL files in the \windows\system\ directory since those are used by multiple programs. It's only safe to delete DLL files that are in same directory of a program you want to delete. INI files are files used to store settings for programs. They usually stay in the same directory as the program they belong to, but some programs like to put them in the \windows\ directory. These can be viewed and edited with any text editor, but it is highly recommended you back up any INI files before editing them. Some INI files in the \windows\ directory are orphaned from the programs that created them. Only delete these if you are certain you won't need them anymore.

What are DLL files?
Short for Dynamic Link Library, a library of executable functions or data that can be used by a Windows application. Typically, a DLL provides one or more particular functions and a program accesses the functions by creating either a static or dynamic link to the DLL. A static link remains constant during program execution while a dynamic link is created by the program as needed. DLLs can also contain just data. DLL files usually end with the extension .dll,.exe., drv, or .fon.
A DLL can be used by several applications at the same time. Some DLLs are provided with the Windows operating system and available for any Windows application. Other DLLs are written for a particular application and are loaded with the application.

What are INI files?
Pronounced dot-in-ee file, a file that has a.INI extension and contains configuration information for Windows. Two.INI files, WIN.INI and SYSTEM.INI, are required by MS-Windows. In addition, many applications have their own.INI files. In Windows 95, NT and later, INI files have been replaced by the registry though many applications still include.INI files for backward compatibility.
http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/D/DLL.html
3. Philosophy and Science
They are both carbohydrates. Glyceraldehyde (C3H6O3) is the simplest carbohydrate molecule and hyaluronic acid (approximately C10,000H20,000O10,000) is the most complex.
The hyaluronic acids (HA) are a class of macromolecular proteoglycans characterized by a highly polymerized chain of glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine units bonded to protein. They exist in nature as a hydrated gel, usually closely associated with other tissue components such as chrondroitin sulfate.
Hyaluronic acid (HA, hyaluronan) is a special protein that exists naturally in all living organisms. In the human body, it is found in greatest concentrations in the synovial fluid of articular joints for lubrication, the vitreous humor (fluid) of the eye, and most abundantly in the skin. As we age, the body produces less Hyaluronic Acid. The joints become stiff and the movement painful, the skin becomes dry and wrinkly. Replacement procedures are offered by certain companies to counter this process.
Hyaluronic acid is a heteropolysaccharides,
glyceraldehyde is a carbohydrate
See:
http://www.cm.utexas.edu/academic/courses/Fall2001/CH369/lec12/glyeral.htm
Hyaluronic acid is a major component of mucous. Glyceraldehyde can be produced by oxidizing Glycerol and with dihydroxyacetone form the bases for all carbohydrates.
4. Logic
The German keeps Fish
House #1      House #2      House #3     House #4    House #5

Norwegian     Dane          Briton       German      Swede
Yellow        Blue          Red          Green       White
Water         Tea           Milk         Coffe       Beer
Dunhill       Blend         Pall Mall    Prince      Blue Master
Cats          Horses        Birds        Fish        Dogs
 
 

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War XII - battle 5
1. Forestry
In War of the Minds, battle 3, a long time ago, the answer to a question was Kentucky Coffee Tree. Our web visitor who answered this question included in his answer some discussion of the scientific name of the tree:
Actually, I've seen it listed as G. dioica and G. dioicus -- which makes 
a sort of twisted sense, since the tree is "dioecious" (meaning it has male
and female individuals) and dioeca and dioecus would be the male and female
forms of the same word, in Latin. But I don't think that botanical Linnaean
binomial taxonomy works that way. Either a (contemporary) Somebody screwed
up or a (historic) Somebody couldn't make up their mind. I used 'dioica'
because  the names I've seen for other plants seem to favor the feminine
dioecious name (Urtica dioica = stinging nettle; Silene diocia = red
campion; Bryonia dioica =  white bryony; and many others) 
A recent visitor to our pages emailed us to give the correct scientific name and the reason based on Latin usage that it is correct. Please see if you can also give us this answer.
see Answer
2. Computers
In Windows XP at the command prompt the following commands may be given:
c:\windows\NET TIME \\MASTER /SET /YES
W32tm /config /syncfromflags:MANUAL /manualpeerlist:time.windows.com,tick.usno.navy.mil
What is the purpose of each of these commands?
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
Probably the most horrifying legendary sea monster, this huge, many armed, creature could reach as high as the top of a sailing ship's main mast. They would attack a ship, wrap their arms around the hull and capsize it. The crew would drown or be eaten by the monster.
This monster was probably real.
It is probably a carnivorous mollusk with a beak-like mouth strong enough to cut through a steel cable and whose eyes are the largest in the animal kingdom -- growing up to 45 centimeters (18 inches) wide.
It is believed to feed on, among other things, the world's biggest animals with several eyewitness stories from fisherman who have seen it in fierce battles with whales.
What creature is thought to be this legendary monster?
see Answer
4. Logic
If 2 of the following statements are false, what chance is there that the egg came first?
Round to the nearest whole percent.
Note: If any part of a statement is false, then the entire statement must be false.
  1. The chicken came first.
  2. The egg came first.
  3. 1 is false, & 2 is true.

see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
It's Gymnocladus dioicus (not Gymnocladus dioica).
The reason is that Gymnocladus (the genus name) is Latin masculine so the specific adjective has to take the masculine form too - dioicus. The other genera you mention, Urtica, Silene and so on are Latin feminine and take the appropriate form of the adjective - dioica.
Not to fuss though - it's good old Kentucky Coffeetree anyway !
Gymnocladus - meaning "naked branch" (deciduous and having a "bold character) dioicus - meaning dioecius
*us neuter singular nominative
*a neuter (or feminine) plural nominative

Later this email was received:
The reader who told you that correct spelling for Kentucky Coffee Tree is Gymnocladus dioicus is wrong, because Gymnocladus is not a masculine word.
Gymnocladus, like all plant and tree Latin names ending with "-us", is a feminine name that belongs to the 4th Latin declination of names (Gymnocladus, us).
Therefore, the correct attribution is feminine: dioica
Gymnocladus dioica = that's the correct spelling. best regards,
Orio Menoni - doctor in Latin letters at the Catholic University of Milan, Italy
2. Computers
c:\windows\NET TIME \\MASTER /SET /YES
Synchronizes your computer's clock with the computer named 'master'. / SET causes synchronization with, and /YES does it without prompting you first.
W32tm /config /syncfromflags:MANUAL / manualpeerlist:time.windows.com,tick.usno.navy.mil
W32tm can be used to adjust time settings on a computer. /config is used to make the change, /syncfromflags: MANUAL determines the types of synchronization to occur, in this case manual. /manualpeerlist determines the peers to synchronize time with, in this case a couple of sites, time.windows.com, tick.usno.navy.mil. According to Technet (have never tried it) the /update switch would need to be included in order that the Windows Time Service accounts for any changes. Basically we're setting the clock.
3. Philosophy and Science
That would be the giant squid, Architeuthis dux
According to news reports, last month a 550-pound giant squid was found dead on a beach in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. "It had lost its two tentacles but would have been about 50 feet long." (Presumably this is a reference to the squid's thinnest, longest tentacles used to catch food & bring it to the squid's mouth; the squid has 5 pairs of "arms.") See:
4. Logic
0%. The only way two of the statements are false is if the first one is true and the other two false, so the chicken came first and the egg second.
Only one of the three statements can exist without possibility of contradiction. For example if you say that statements 1 and 2 are false, statement 3 creates a contradiction with statement 2 (We designate 2 as false, but 3b states it is true). If we say that statements 1 and 3 are false, there is a contradiction between statement 2 and 3 (We designate 2 as true, but 3 is said to be false and thus states that B (or 2) is false). The last statement is the only one that can exist without contradiction. If we say that statements 2 and 3 are false then 1 is true (backed up by 3 being false and thus stating A (or 1) is true, and 2 is false. In that one situation the chicken came first. Thus under these definitions and interpretations there is no possibility for the egg coming first. Ergo there is a 0% chance the egg will come first in this situation.
 
 

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War XII - battle 4
1. Forestry
Foresters in surveying a tract of land sometimes use a table listing the position of one or more celestial bodies for each day of the year. The French publication, Connaissance de Temps, founded in 1679, is the oldest of such published tables. What do we call such a table? Why do surveyors sometimes need such information?
see Answer
2. Computers
In programming the Intel 80x86 chip, the assembly language command, "JLE 0107" when compiled into machine language by a compiler calls for what type of action when the resulting program is executed.
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
One of the biggest and most ancient lakes of the world is situated nearly in the center of Asia in a huge stone bowl set 445 m above sea level. Everyone who has been to its shores is impressed and charmed by the grandeur, size, and unusual might of this miracle of nature. What lake is this and about how large and how old is it?
see Answer
4. Logic
There are no tricks - this is a straight forward problem. This is supposed to be one of the questions which potential Microsoft employees are asked.

U2 have a concert that starts in 17 minutes and they must all cross a bridge to get there. All four men begin on the same side of the bridge. You must help them across to the other side. It is night. There is one flashlight.

A maximum of two people can cross at one time. Any party that crosses the bridge, either 1 or 2 people, must have the flashlight with them. The flashlight must be carried back and forth, it cannot be thrown, etc. Each band member walks at a different speed. A pair must walk together at the rate of the slower man's pace:

* Bono: - 1 minute to cross
* Edge: - 2 minutes to cross
* Adam: - 5 minutes to cross
* Larry: - 10 minutes to cross


For example: if Bono and Larry walk across first, 10 minutes have elapsed by the time they get to the other side of the bridge. If Larry then returns with the flashlight, a total of 20 minutes have passed and you have failed the mission.

There is no trick to this. It is a simple movement of resources in the appropriate order. There are two known answers to this problem. Microsoft expects you to answer this question in under 5 minutes!
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
Ephemeris, which in modern greek means newspaper, is a table listing the position of one or more celestial bodies for each day of the year.
See:
http://www.slider.com/enc/18000/ephemeris.htm
A very important use of the ephemerides is for positioning. Using the star's positions one can find his own.
2. Computers
Jump, if less than or equal, to address 0107, in other words pass process control to the instruction in memory location 0107 if the first operand is less than or equal to the second operand in a given signed comparison (not contained here).
3. Philosophy and Science
Lake Baikal, 1637m deep, 636km long and up to 80km wide, 25 million years old.
The world's biggest sweet water lake, the world's deepest lake and the container of one fifth of the world's surface fresh water resources.
See:
http://www.baikal.ru
and
http://www.irkutsk.org/baikal/
4. Logic
The trick is that Adam and Larry need to cross together to make the longest times take a single crossing together rather than two crossings separately.
        Bono and Edge cross  - 2 Minutes
        Bono comes back         - 1 minute
        Larry and Adam cross    - 10 minutes
        Edge comes back - 2 minutes
        Edge and Bono cross     - 2 minutes
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                17 minutes
 
 

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War XII - battle 3
1. Forestry
What is a "witches'-broom"? What is a gall? What is cecidology?
see Answer
2. Computers
This computing system consists of 640 supercomputers that are connected by a high- speed network (data transfer speed; 12.3 GBytes). Each supercomputer (1 node) contains eight vector processors with a peak performance of 8GFlops and a high- speed memory of 16 GBytes. The total number of processors is 5120 (8 x 640), which translates to a total of approximately 40 TFlops peak performance, and a total main memory of 10 TeraBytes. It is the world's fastest supercomputer as of mid 2002 and is approximately five times as powerful as the world's second fastest supercomputer. What and where is this powerful system? What is a TFlop?
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
This metal alloy of Nickel and Titanium, when it is below its critical temperature, is in its martensitic state and can be bent easily. However, above that temperature it is in its autenitic state and becomes rigidly locked into a previously "remembered" shape. What is the name of this alloy and what general term is given to alloys with this characteristic?
see Answer
4. Math
You are driving by car to a particular destination, and our only assumption is that you are free to drive at any speed you choose - no traffic jams or anything like that. For the first half of the journey (i.e. half the distance) you drive at 20 miles per hour. You then realise that this is all taking much too long, and that you are going to be late. You therefore decide that you will increase your speed so that your overall average speed for the whole journey will be 40 miles per hour. How fast do you have to drive for the remaining part of your journey in order for your average speed for the whole journey to be 40 miles per hour?
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
Witches'-broom - Abnormal brushy growth of small branches caused by an infection.
See:
http://www.dcnr.state.pa.us/forestry/commontr/TableofContents/glossary.htm
Sample image:
http://www.r5.fs.fed.us/fpm/yellow_witches_broom_of_white_fi.htm
gall - abnormal growths as a reaction to irritations or stimuli such as feeding, stinging, egg-laying, or injections of toxins. Galls usually have a characteristic shape and location on the host, but, in spite of their often conspicuous appearance, most affect the appearance rather than the health of the trees.
See:
http://interactive.usask.ca/skinteractive/modules/forestry/tree/aging_insects.html#gall-maker
Cecidology - The study of plant galls See:
2. Computers
It is the Japanese supercomputer, Earth Simulator. It is at the Marine Science and Technology Center in Kanagawa. It is used to simulate climate changes of the earth.
A teraflop is a measure of speed for a computer. This is measured as 10^12 floating point operations per second.
See:
Information on the top 500 supercomputers
Press release for the Earth Simulator
        Description of mission:

The Earth Simulator Project will create a "virtual earth" on a supercomputer 
to show what the world  will look like in the future by means of advanced 
numerical simulation technology. 

Our daily lives are influenced greatly by various global-scale phenomena. On 
the other hand, they affect adversely the Earth's environment to a 
considerable extent. 

Realization of prediction of global change, and promotion of information 
science and technology to a higher level. 

Achievement of the world's highest level of simulation performance in earth 
science field. 
You are referring to a japanese computer also known as the Earth Simulator. built by NEC in Yokahama, it is expected by some to be the faster computer in the world for 2 years or more. it is a 'true vector processing system'. not exactly sure what that means, but it seems to have to do with performing complex interrelated modelling tasks quickly, as this quote infers: The Earth Simulator will be used for research in Earth related science. It is especially suited for simulating complex linked systems, where for instance, the climate is modelled together with water flow on the earth and models of the ocean. In general, these types of applications lend themselves very good for vector processing.
A 'TFlop' stands for 'Tera Floating point operations' or a trillion floating point operations (per second). at 35+ TFlops, the earth simulator is 5x faster on this measurement than the previous no. 1, ASCI White.
3. Philosophy and Science
It is called Nitinol. They are "Shape Memory Alloys".
See:
4. Math
You have to travel the rest of the trip instantaneously.
Using the relationship between rate of travel (r), time (t), and distance
(d): r*t = d, to travel a distance d = x at an average rate of 40 mph, we
have:

(40 mph) * t = x, or t = x / 40 (t will be the total time for the trip).

To find out how much time we have used in the first half of the trip at 20
mph, we have:

(20 mph) * T = (x / 2), or T = x / 40.

Since t = x/40 = T, we see we have used all the time allowed to complete the
entire trip at a rate of 40 mph, so the rest of the trip must be
instantaneous.
It is physically impossible to average 40 miles per hour because my travel distance is 40 miles (double the 20 miles I have driven which represents half the journey). In order for me to average 40 miles per hour, I would have to reach my destination in one hour. That can not be done, because I have already spent one hour traveling the first 20 miles of my trip.
 
 

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War XII - battle 2
1. Forestry
What one word is brought to mind by these trees?
see Answer
2. Computers
Put these computer languages in order as to the year of their introduction:
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
If I tell you that Protista is one of the four Kingdoms of the Eucarya Domain, can you name the other three?
see Answer
4. Logic
Complete the blanks below, to make each sentence true.
The number of times the digit 0 appears in this puzzle is ______.
The number of times the digit 1 appears in this puzzle is ______.
The number of times the digit 2 appears in this puzzle is ______.
The number of times the digit 3 appears in this puzzle is ______.
The number of times the digit 4 appears in this puzzle is ______.
The number of times the digit 5 appears in this puzzle is ______.
The number of times the digit 6 appears in this puzzle is ______.
The number of times the digit 7 appears in this puzzle is ______.
The number of times the digit 8 appears in this puzzle is ______.
The number of times the digit 9 appears in this puzzle is ______.

see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
Sycamore
They are the sycamore fig, the sycamore maple, and the American sycamore.
2. Computers
Fortran - November 1954
Cobol - 1959
Basic - May 1, 1964
Ada - 1979
C++ - July 1983
Perl - December 18, 1987
Java - 1991
See: http://perso.wanadoo.fr/levenez/lang/
3. Philosophy and Science
Plantae, animalia, fungi.
Plants, animals and mushrooms if you prefer.
4. Logic
The number of times the digit 0 appears in this puzzle is 1.
The number of times the digit 1 appears in this puzzle is 7.
The number of times the digit 2 appears in this puzzle is 3.
The number of times the digit 3 appears in this puzzle is 2.
The number of times the digit 4 appears in this puzzle is 1.
The number of times the digit 5 appears in this puzzle is 1.
The number of times the digit 6 appears in this puzzle is 1.
The number of times the digit 7 appears in this puzzle is 2.
The number of times the digit 8 appears in this puzzle is 1.
The number of times the digit 9 appears in this puzzle is 1.
An alternative answer is just to put the word "one" in each blank.
 
 

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War XII - battle 1
1. Forestry
What is the significance of each of these trees?
see Answer
2. Computers
Who are these people?
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
This ongoing analysis of data has become the largest computation project in the world. As of July 2001 it had produced 890 billion billion floating point operations. What is it?
see Answer
4. Math
Al, Bob and Charlie need to make a journey of 40 miles. Al can walk at 1 mile per hour. Bob can walk at 2 miles per hour. Charlie rides in a donkey cart at 8 miles per hour.
They all start together, with Bob on foot and Al riding with Charlie in the donkey cart. After a while, Charlie drops off Al and Al walks the rest of the way. Charlie immediately goes back to pick up Bob (who has been walking the whole time). Bob rides with Charlie the rest of the way. Al, Bob and Charlie all complete the trip at exactly the same time.
How long did the trip take?
see Answer
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
The tallest living tree stands at 112 meters (367 feet, 6 in.), or five stories higher than the Statue of Liberty. It is a Mendocino Tree, a coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) found at Montgomery State Reserve near Ukiah, California, USA. It is estimated to be over 1000 years old. The tree was last measured in September 1998, and was also found to have a diameter of 3.14 m. (10 ft. 4 in.). It was declared the tallest tree in 1996.

Standing under this redwood, like others, would probably cause one to get extremely wet. So much "fog drip" condenses on a redwood's needles, branches and trunk that it waters the tree as well as the surrounding vegetation, playing a large role in creating and maintaining the ecosystem. Redwoods can gather as much as half of a forest's annual supply of water. Just one tree can effectively drop 4 inches of rainfall in one night. Plants normally move water up from the ground to their foliage where it evaporates. That action then pulls more water up the plant. But the taller the plant, the more likely the system is to break down. However, the fog that surrounds the redwoods may slow the evaporation rate so much that the plants don't need to send much water skyward or can even get water directly from the mist. This helps explain why the redwoods are the tallest trees on earth.

Although this redwood is currently the tallest tree, it is not the tallest tree in history. A Eucalyptus regnans at Mt. Baw Baw, Victoria, Australia, is believed to have measured 143 m. (470 ft.) in 1885. Formerly, another Australian eucalyptus, at Watts River, Victoria, almost certainly had been over 150 m. (492 ft.) tall.

Methuselah is the oldest tree on earth, it actually is the oldest living organism in this planet, it will be 4645 years old this year.
See http://www.sonic.net/bristlecone/home.html

The General Sherman Tree in Sequoia National Park is the largest (by volume) tree in the world.
See http://www.nps.gov/seki/shrm_pic.htm
2. Computers
Alex Gramling, writing in the New York Times, summarized the problems caused by unverified forwarding of rumors and urban myths. Jessica Mydek, for example is not in fact a seven-year-old dying of brain cancer, and the American Cancer Society has never volunteered to donate three cents for each copy of the hoax. Tommy Hilfiger has never appeared on the Oprah Winfrey Show, let alone made racist remarks about who should wear his line of clothing. Despite attempts to counter such harmful rumors, victims have little power to overcome human stupidity and irresponsibility. Moral: DON'T FORWARD UNSUBSTANTIATED STORIES THROUGH THE NET, especially if they are shocking or make you angry.
See http://urbanlegends.about.com/library/bljess.htm
Poor little 8-year Craig Shergold was dying of a brain tumor in 1989. He issued an appeal for get-well cards that began circulating through the Internet ten years ago. He is now a healthy, strapping 18-year-old and he DOESN'T WANT ANY MORE DAMN GET-WELL CARDS. His family and the Royal Mail issued a world-wide appeal begging people to stop circulating the hoary chain letter and its variants through the Net and via fuzzy photocopies. The family has received over 140 million cards and still gets three to four sacks full daily. At one point it became extremely difficult to find the real mail in the flood of good wishes. This is a real-life case of the Sorcerer's Apprentice. Stop awready!
Kevin Mitnick, "America's Most Wanted Computer Outlaw," eluded the police, US Marshalls, and FBI for over two years after vanishing while on probation for his 1989 conviction for computer and access device fraud. His downfall was his Christmas 1994 break-in to Tsutomu Shimomura's computers in San Diego, California. Less than two months later, Tsutomu had tracked him down after a cross-country electronic pursuit. Mitnick was arrested by the FBI in Raleigh, North Carolina, on February 15th, 1995.
3. Philosophy and Science
I would say the SETI @ home project.
4. Math
8x + y = 2(x + z) + 8(y - z) = 40 & 2(x + z) = 8(x - z) => z = 0.6x & 5y = x + 25 & x = 175/41 => x + y = (175 + 35 + 205)/41 = 415/41 = 10 + 5/41 h which is approximately 10 hours and 7 minutes.
In the equation x is the time Al is in the cart, y the time Bob is in the cart and z the time Charlie is going back to pick up Bob.

                        t1              t2
Als:            |---------------->+--------->|

                  t1    t4      t3
Bob's:          |----+----->+--------------->|

                        t1
Charlies:       |----------------->+
                                t4
                            +<-----+
                                    t3
                            +--------------->|

Al's Equation (A):      40 = 8 t1 + 1 t2
Bob's (B):              40 = 2 t1 + 8 t3 + 2 t4
Charlie's (C):          40 + 2(8 t4 ) = 8 t1 + 8 t3 + 8 t4

t1 = Time Al was on the cart
t2 = Time Al had to walk. ( t2 = t3 + t4  therefore  Al's equ becomes : 40 =
8 t1 + 1 t3 + 1 t4)
t3 = Time Bob was on the cart
t4 = Time it took charlie to reach Bob once he'd dropped off Al.

In the equations 40 is in Miles, and the 8's and 2's are in Miles/Hour,
while the t's are in Hours. This leaves all the

equations balanced. Miles = Miles.

Solving the equations simultaneously (3 equations (A,B,C) and 3 unknowns
(t1, t3, t4), since t2 = t3 + t4), gives the

following answer:
        Total time for the trip: 10 Hours, 7 Minutes, 19.0243 Seconds.
        +- 10 Hours, 7 Minutes, 19 Seconds.


Another set of equations in which A is the time Al is in the cart, B the time Bob is in the cart and C is the time Charlie is going back to pick up Bob:
8A+(X-A)=40
8B+2X-2B=40
A+B+C=X
8A-8C+8B=40

7A+A+B+C=40
6B+2A+2B+2C=40
A-C+B=5

A+B-5=C

7A+A+B+A+B-5=40
6B+2A+2B+2A+2B-10=40

9A+2B-5=40
10B+4A-10=40

9A+2B=45
4A+10B=50

4A=50-10B
A=12.5-2.5B

9*(12.5-2.5B)+2B=45

112.5-22.5B+2B=45
112.5-45=22.5B-2B
67.5=20.5B

B=3.2926829
A=12.5-2.5*B=4.268293
C=4.268293+3.2926829-5=2.5609759

X=A+B+C=10.121951 OR 10 HRS. 7.32 MINUTES

Al traveled 
4.268293*8+5.853658=40
Bob traveled
3.2926829*8+13.658538=40
Charlie traveled
4.268293-2.5609759+3.2926829=5 hours X 8=40 miles
 
 

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Standings in the War - XII

 
 

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Last revised September 18, 2002.

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