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War of the Minds - Archive - War XVI

An Internet Contest


We have a winner of War XVI

Jeff Johnson has accumulated 1080 points.


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Archives - War XVI

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Archives of Previous Battles - War XVI

War XVI - battle 11
1. Forestry
What family is this?
see Answer
2. Computers
What do you know about my computer system from the contents of my /etc/fstab file below?
/dev/hdb5 / ext3 defaults,noatime 1 1
/dev/hdb2 swap swap sw,pri=1 0 0
none /proc proc defaults 0 0
none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
none /dev/pts devpts mode=0622 0 0
/dev/hdb10 /home ext3 defaults,noatime 1 2
/dev/cdrom              /mnt/cdrom              udf,iso9660 noauto,owner,kudzu,ro 0 0
/dev/cdrom1             /mnt/cdrom1             udf,iso9660 noauto,owner,kudzu,ro 0 0
/dev/floppy             /mnt/floppy             auto    noauto,owner,kudzu 0 0
# Dynamic entries
/dev/hda1 /mnt/hda1 vfat noauto,users,exec,umask=000 0 0
/dev/hda5 /mnt/hda5 ext3 noauto,users,exec 0 0
/dev/hda6 swap swap sw,pri=1 0 0
/dev/hda7 /mnt/hda7 ext3 noauto,users,exec 0 0
/dev/hdb6 /mnt/hdb6 ext3 noauto,users,exec 0 0
/dev/hdb7 /mnt/hdb7 ext3 noauto,users,exec 0 0
/dev/hdb8 /mnt/hdb8 ext3 noauto,users,exec 0 0
/dev/hdb9 /mnt/hdb9 ext3 noauto,users,exec 0 0
/dev/zip                /mnt/zip                auto    users,exec,sync    0 0

see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
Where is this?


(click on picture for a clearer picture 737k)


see Answer
4. Culture
According to the song lyrics, if I am "standing at the corner of 12th street and Vine", I am in what city for what purpose?
see Answer
Please send answers to: oldky@kyphilom.com.
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
The family Fagaceae is often called "the oak family", but it includes a fair amount of diversity beyond oaks (Quercus), such as chestnuts (Castanea), beech (Fagus), chinkapin (Chrysophylla) and Lithocarpus, "evergreen oaks" with a few scattered species in China/Japan and the US Pacific coast.

2. Computers
fstab stands for File System TABle. It is where the system admin tells the operating system what file systems are available to it.
The fields, in order are <device> <mountpoint> <filesystemtype> <options> <dump> <fsckorder>.
In summary, in the case of the fstab file shown, you have many hard disks (here notated with "hd"), 2 cdrom drives, a floppy drive, and a zip drive. The first entries before the "dynamic" section are done at boot and the dynamic entries are Linux partitions.
For a line by line:
 
/dev/hdb5 / ext3 defaults,noatime 1 1
This has a hard disk mounted to the root directory with a Linux filesystem. It 
has default options (rw,suid,dev,exec,auto,nouser,async) with "no-update of 
file access timestamps" (noatime). Next to last is the backup flag (here is 
indicates 1/day), and last is the file system check utility flag (here a 
"yes"). 

/dev/hdb2 swap swap sw,pri=1 0 0
This is a swap disk, with a priority of 1., Not backed up or checked.  
User/group ID set and write permission (sw) 

none /proc proc defaults 0 0
Linux pseudo-process filesystem (kernel uses it to provide system status), 
given all default values. Not checked/backed up. 

none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
USB filesystem, given all defaults. Not checked/backed up.

none /dev/pts devpts mode=0622 0 0
This is where pseudo-terminals (PTYs) are implemented.  Mode indicates mesg 
permissions (rw-w-w). Not checked/backed up. 

/dev/hdb10 /home ext3 defaults,noatime 1 2
Linux filesystem, generally the "home" directory/space for users. As above, 
gets all default options, has no access timestamp updates, is backed up 
however, and is fsck'ed on the second pass. 

/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom udf,iso9660 noauto,owner,kudzu,ro 0 0
/dev/cdrom1 /mnt/cdrom1 udf,iso9660 noauto,owner,kudzu,ro 0 0
2 CD Rom drives, with Univeral Data Format (udf) and ISO 9660 filesystems, 
both owned by user kudzu, and read-only. Not checked/backed up. 

/dev/floppy /mnt/floppy             auto    noauto,owner,kudzu 0 0
Floppy drive, owned by kudzu, will no automatically mount, but can be if 
directed via "mount". Not checked/backed up. 

# Dynamic entries
/dev/hda1 /mnt/hda1 vfat noauto,users,exec,umask=000 0 0
/dev/hda5 /mnt/hda5 ext3 noauto,users,exec 0 0
/dev/hda6 swap swap sw,pri=1 0 0
/dev/hda7 /mnt/hda7 ext3 noauto,users,exec 0 0
/dev/hdb6 /mnt/hdb6 ext3 noauto,users,exec 0 0
/dev/hdb7 /mnt/hdb7 ext3 noauto,users,exec 0 0
/dev/hdb8 /mnt/hdb8 ext3 noauto,users,exec 0 0
/dev/hdb9 /mnt/hdb9 ext3 noauto,users,exec 0 0
/dev/zip                /mnt/zip                auto    users,exec,sync    0 0
Here, the noauto on the following specifies that they are not automatically mounted. The list includes several Linux filesystems (ext3) and MS longfilename FAT (vfat), along with a swap. Excepting the swap, all users can access them (users), and can run binaries (exec) For the vfat, the file creation mask (umask) allows full rwx access for all users when files are created (000). For the zip drive the I/O is synchronous (sync) and automatically mounted (auto). None are checked/backed up.

The fstab [File System TABle] tells the OS about the file systems 
available, and their location. In this case, I see - a floppy, whise file 
system isn't specified, since data was often stored in software-specific file 
systems rahter than accessed via the OS [Remember C/PM?] - two "CD-ROM" 
drives, possibly a CD-writer and a DVD, using UDF and ISO9660 - two physical 
IDE (or ATA) HDDs (hda and hdb) divided into several partitions, - support for 
removable drives [Zip and USB) and devpts (pseudoterminals or PTYs). - 
mounting proc allows the system to use pseudofiles to convey system 
information. 

Most of the HDD partitions are formatted in ext3, a journaling file system 
that allows for faster, reliable recovery and integrity checking after 
improper system shutdowns (power outages, crashes, etc.). I note that only hdb 
5 and 10 are set for backup and fsck (file checking) 

The first primary partition on physical hard drive A (hda1) is in VFAT, 
compatible with Microsoft FATxx file systems with 'long filename support', 
suggesting that this system is a multiboot system, with at least one MS 
operating system (Win95 or later). There are no NTFS or DOS partitions. 

The "missing partitions" (gaps in the numbering sequence; e.g. 3 and 4) may be 
partitions with other OSs installed on them - or not: different "distros" or 
"flavors" of Linux use different default conventions to number partitions. 
Traditionally, each physical drive was numbered separately, so you'd number up 
from hda1, and then start over with hdb1, but this system seems to use one 
number sequence across all its IDE drives: /hda1 through /hdb10, with no 
number being repeated, regardless of host drive.) There are as many possible 
reasons for a gap in the numbering as the system architects imagination 
allows. 

The noauto option on most of these partitions requires "manual" mounting 
anyway (though this may be done by programs or batch files, after the OS is 
booted). The owner and user options specify which accounts can mount these 
drives. "user" also implies several other options by default (noexec, nosuid, 
nodev). Nouser (not seen here) sometimes confuses people: it only allows a 
file system to be mounted by the root (superuser) account. 

OS partitions are often made mutually unavailable by default. Data can be 
shared between multiple OSs via a mutually compatible partition, but allowing 
OSs free access to each other's "guts" can be an invitation for disaster. You 
can mount such partitions manually or boot from a recovery floppy or CD, if 
you ever want to (e.g.) use one OS to repair another, 

The CDROMs use UDF and ISO9660. The file system of the floppy drive isn't 
specified, beause data disks sometimes use software specific formats. Remote 
filesystems (on other machines) can also be mounted (attached 'virtually') via 
NFS [Network File System] in the /fstab, but I don't see that here. 

3. Philosophy and Science
This is the southern tip of Manhattan, "downtown" New York City (which actually comprises 5 boroughs).

The World Trade Center towers stood in the shaded area to the right of the "domed" buildings of the World Financial Center on the west (Hudson River) side. (I was one of the many thousands of commuters who passed through the World Trade Center in our daily commute. I also had the privilege of seeing Manhattan -- and a lot else -- from Windows on the World.)

Note: I believe that the "stepped" building at the bottom of the picture is the building where I first worked in Manhattan, back in 1973, 1 New York Plaza. It was opposite the Staten Island Ferry terminal.

Manhattan, NYC, south of Canal Street (Tribeca and the financial district). The photo includes the former World Trade Center, and therefore was taken before the "9/11" terrorist attack. I've quickly labelled some visible landmarks, but they make this area look much more boring than it is (at least on weekdays - when I used to go there, the financial district was a ghost town on Sundays, and Tribeca/Soho were remarkably like moderately large towns, if you ignored the buildings and aimlessly swarming tourists.)
4. Culture
The title of the song seems to sum up the answers to this question:
Kansas City. And to provide the reason why, here are some further lyrics:
"Going to Kansas City, Kansas City here I come
They got some crazy lil' women there and I'm gonna get me one "
The most popular version, in MMHO, would have to be Fats Domino's.
Today, that street corner no longer exists - the popular Jazz/Blues area is now 18th street.

You'd be in Kansas City to partake of (variously) the "crazy way of lovin", "crazy little women", "crazy little fellas", "turquoise retro oven", etc. depending on whose version you prefer. It's one of those songs everyone seems to have covered at some time [but if that last guy isn't remodelling his kitchen, he needs to work on his enunciation]
 
 
 
 

Jump back to the top.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

War XVI - battle 10
1. Forestry
What are these?
see Answer
2. Computers
Add two to this list.
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
Where is this?


(click on picture for a clearer picture 227k)


see Answer
4. History
From Ledo to Kunming by way of Shindbwiyang, Myitkyina, and Mong-Yu. What and when?
see Answer
Please send answers to: oldky@kyphilom.com.
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
 
1. Forestry
These are all members of the Rosaceae family (and can coincidentally all be found in the Washington D.C. area).

Sorbus is not, as some believe, the deification of the star of TV's Hercules and Andromeda, but is a genus that includes whitebeams and mountain ashes.

Crataegus is the genus of hawthorns.

Malus includes the apple and crab apple trees. It is also a word that gives me (and anyone who ever seriously studied Latin) fits, because it can mean so many things. Bad word! Bad! No Apple for you! ['bad' and 'apple tree' are among the Latin meanings of 'malus']. As a schoolboy, I recall a poem that read, in its entirety: "Malo / malo / malo / malo" and could be translated as (among other things) "I would rather be / in an apple tree / than a naughty boy/ in adversity." All that from one word. Oh my aching head.

Prunus includes almonds, apricots, cherries, nectarines, plums, peaches -- but not prunes. Perhaps the name is a plaintive plea: "Prune us!" Yet, I never do.

Pyrus includes the pears.
2. Computers
These are all distributions of Linux, and there are many more available. Mandrake and Red Hat are two additional versions.

Since I have to name two (out of many) I'd pick CERN Linux (a RedHat variant optimized for cluster computing and power users), because I love CERN (I lived in Basel for a while. Admittedly, I'm not entirely enamored of Geneva; I often joked it should be given back to the French) and EvilEntity, one of several Audio and video production oriented distributions I'm looking into for the next generation of my HTPC (Home Theater PC - a single inexpensive computer that serves the functions of a wall full of expensive gear, with performance that few prosumer units can match: digital audio, standard TV, DVD, DVR, HDTV, ATSC recording, A/V editing and processing, upscaling to a 12-ft digital projector, and many other functions,

A more extensive and informative list of distributions, with links, can be found here
3. Philosophy and Science
This is an overview of Washington, D.C., centering over the National Mall area.

The city is Washington DC,The map is rotated "upside down" relative to the traditional cartographic orientation, so North is "down" and East is to the left. Among the distinctive landmarks visible in the smaller picture are the Washington Monument (and its shadow) near the center, the Lincoln Memorial (near the center of the right edge, on the Potomac River), the Jefferson Memorial (near top center, on the Tidal Pool), The White House (near bottom center), and The Mall (extending past the center of the left margin) which is surrounded by many government offices and buildings of the Smithsonian Institution; and finally, and the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts and the infamous Watergate Hotel in the lower right corner. I've attached a copy of the larger version , with a few more key landmarks labeled, but it would be impossible to label them all (try as I might, I couldn't label the Einstein Memorial, where I often used to hang out between meetings in DC; it's in a wooded grove in front of the department of Agriculture building, and easy to overlook even if you standing at sidewalkis leading in. It's not an insignificant monument, however, and I personally think it's worth the search. It's laden with clever details)

Here's a puzzle for the reader: Deduce the rough date and time this picture was taken. Extra credit if you can deduce the approximate year as well.

Soumen sent a copy of the photo labeled for the reader.
4. History
This refers to Stilwell Rd., named for General Joseph Stillwell, Chief of Staff to Allied Forces in the China-Burma-India theatre. It was started in December of 1942 and completed in approximately May of 1945, and was built by US Army engineers. It ran from Ledo in Assam, India and connected to Burma Rd. which led to Kunming, China. For a complete discussion, see
http://www.geocities.com/nicchg/stilwell.html

This would be Stilwell's Road (originally called the Ledo Road), constructed by the Americans in WWII.

The famous Burma Road, built by the Chinese (1938) during the Sino-Japanese war ran from a railhead at Lashio, Burma, to Kunming, China, and was a key trade, supply, and troop transport route. However, it was partly blocked by Japanese occupied territory in 1942. The Ledo Road was meant to bypass the the Japanese occupation zone, restoring supply routes to the Chinese stronghold of Kunming, and, from there, cities as far as Chunking and beyond.

Ledo was one of the railheads of the Bengal-Assam Railway, in the strongly held and loyal British colony of India. Pn todays maps, it's the far eastern tip of India, near the junction of China and Burma - a "peninsula" of India beyond the bottleneck "isthmus" (if you will) between Bhutan and Bangladesh, It might seem primitive by western standards, it is actually one of the major reasons why India fought to keep that landlocked "outstretched hand to the east".

The Ledo Road was not just a road, but a rather complex transport system, which included oil pipelines, etc. This supply chain was an impressive engineering achievement that (among other hallmarks) ranged over a thousand miles of distance, and almost two miles of altitude.

Its importance might seem minimal, since it wasn't completed until 1945, and was only used by the military in the last 10 months of the war, mostly after Germany had already fallen, but "the war in the Pacific" was not entirely naval, despite the impression left by most current books and movies -- and the long term sociopolitical effects of the Road on Sino American relations; later conflicts in China, India and Burma; and patterns of political/commercial development in those three nations -and beyond- are almost impossible to tabulate. Though the Burma and Ledo Roads have fallen into disrepair in places, their routes are still seen in the pearl necklace of historic landmarks and cities.that remain, even if they now conduct commerce by water, train or air instead.

Indeed, in recent years, there was much discussion among the governors of border regions on reviving the road to boost commercial development, but the Myanmar (Burma) government finally nixed the idea in January. This is a shame, because the idea may have been viable viable. The road never really died, but lived an underground life in the past few decades as a transport route for smuggling and opium transport from the "Golden Triangle". Revitalizing it might help reduce such smuggling, tame lawless regions, and return the route to legal use. Some have suggested that this may have been partly why it was rejected; the government has cited "rebel activity" as a major reason, but many wonder if none of the revenues from illicit trade finds its way into the coffers of officials.

You can read more about Stilwell's Road here.

Pictures of the road itself can be found here.

A first-hand account (with painting made at the time) can be found here
 
 
 
 

Jump back to the top.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

War XVI - battle 9
1. Forestry
What are these and where (what state or country)?
see Answer
2. Computers
Building a city with Maxis' Simcity, I can use the easter egg, "nerdz rool". How do I use this easter egg and what is the effect on the simulation?
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
This is a Simcity model of a building of science found in the American midwest. What is this building and in what city is it located?


see Answer
4. History
The Farewell Dossier exposed Directorate T's operating arm known as Line X. This led to what was said to be the most monumental non-nuclear explosion and fire ever seen from space.

The explosion in the summer of 1982 was observed from space by US satellites and caused concern among the US military who feared it was a missile liftoff from a place where no rockets were known to be based.

Where was this explosion and what caused it?
see Answer
Please send answers to: oldky@kyphilom.com.
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
 
1. Forestry
At first, I thought you were referring to the mines in those regions (though the areas listed seemed rather exorbitant), but the category is forestry, so I realized you meant the massive forest fires associated with those regions. The relationship between the two wasn't always accidental: some of those fires were set, deliberately or accidentally, by employees or residents of the mining communities.

All those forest fires took place in Alaska, which is estimated to have about 200 million acres of "burnable land, about half of which is currently forested. Essentially ALL the burnable land in Alaska has been burned at some point in the 1800s or 1900s! (some area have been burned more than once. This means this one state must average at least a million acres of forest fires every year!
2. Computers
Press the Ctrl-Shift-Alt-C. This brings up a cheat window. Enter the "nerdz rool" code in this window and clean "high tech" industries will begin popping up in your industrial zones.
3. Philosophy and Science - unanswered in War XVI
It is the Shandling Aquarium in Chicago, Illinois.
4. History
The blast took place in the Siberian wilderness, and was caused by deliberately faulty gas pipeline control automation software in the trans- Siberian pipeline. The software was stolen from a Canadian company by a KGB agent, after the US declined the Soviet offer to purchase it directly. Based on information from the operative “Farewell”, the to-be stolen software was modified with what would now be called a Trojan horse, which led to failure of the control mechanisms in the pipeline, thus causing the explosion.

Directorate T was an arm of the KGB set up in the 1970s to illicitly acquire protected technologies from the West. Though its name is relatively unknown in the West, many of its exploits well known to any schoolboy interested in spycraft (and what schoolboy isn't?). For example, during a tour of a Boeing plant, a Soviet VIP wore crepe rubber soles designed to trap metal shavings for later analysis.

To put Line X in perspective: Intelligence is generally divided into two branches, Operations and Analysis. Operations is, broadly speaking, the active branch beloved by schoolboys. Analysis isn't just desk work, but also includes many high tech missions and facilities that don't involve "agents on the ground". [In the 70s/80s, the top intelligence officer was the DCI (Director of Central Intelligence, who not only headed the CIA, but coordinated, and wrote the budgets for, all 13 disparate agencies in the "US intelligence community"; his top deputies were the DDO (Deputy Director for Operations) and DDI (Deputy Director for Intelligence, who handled "Analysis"). Line X was the "operations" branch of Directorate T.

(Debunk mode: Many believe Directorate T acquired the Concorde plans from a worker at a French plant, leading to the Tu-144 (nicknamed "Concordski" for its superficial similarity to the Concorde). However, it is my understanding that this was not actually a Directorate T operation, though they got involved later. Also, the similarities were more apparent than real. While the Soviets did indeed acquire the French plans, numerous interviews and documents that came to light after the fall of the USSR confirm that the Soviets weren't equipped to make good use of them. The French standards and technology were too different. Also, a closer examination of the most crucial systems like supersonic steering and propulsion shows that the two planes used fairly distinct solutions.)

As I understand it, "Farewell Dossier" wasn't a collection of documents. It was the code name for a source (Col. Vladimir Vetrov) high in the analysis branch of directorate T, and US operation to obtain and anayze dat that he provided. Vetrov reputedly turned over thousands of documents that revealed the progress and workings of Directorate T, as well as the identities of hundreds of worldwide agents. Why was it called "Farewell Dossier"? US code names in the SCI era were generated by having a computer randomly generate two letters, These are used as initials for the code name based on the the fancies and imagination of a chief officer/official on the case.

[BTW, despite the Hollywood convention, you don't want to be an "agent" or a "source" or even an "operative". These are the people who take all the risks, and often aren't US government employees. They were not highly regarded, and were often rather mistrusted by career officials. They were low men on the totem pole - a foreign national, a local US businessman, a special ops soldier, etc. A CIA employee would often bristle at being called by these names. They preferred titles like "Case Officer" or "Source Control", meaning they managed or gave orders to the lowly "operatives".]

Based on your description, I believe you are speaking of a covert US operation to sabotage a trans-Ural gas pipeline that was being built. This pipeline into Western Europe would allowed the USSR to convert its large petroleum reserves into hard Western currency to help stabilize its economy, and potentially increased Soviet influence over Western Europe. The failing Soviet economy was arguably the single most influential factor in the fall of the Soviet Union in the late 80s.

However, when I recall that year, I always think of a very different incident, which was also mistaken for a nuclear test. It took place high high in the atmosphere, hundreds of miles off the coast of South Africa, if I recall correctly, and was just a massive flash, not the kind of conflagration you describe. (I'm not sure the true cause was ever definitively established)

I guess it was just a bad year for nuclear misidentifications. Then again, in the grand scheme of things, any year when all your suspected nuclear detonations turn out to be false is a good year, as far as that goes.
 
 
 
 

Jump back to the top.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

War XVI - battle 8
1. Forestry
Walking in an appalachian mountain forest I look down and see around my feet: If I look up am I most likely to see trees that are mostly scarlet oak, chestnut oak, hickory, and pine or am I more likely to see yellow poplar, beech, hemlock and maple. How do you know?
see Answer
2. Computers
Building a city with Maxis' Simcity, I have to pay attention to my RCI. What do the letters R, C, and I indicate?
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
This is a Simcity model of a building of science found in the American midwest. What is this building and in what city is it located?


see Answer
4. Culture
Below is a Simcity model of a landmark found in the Middle East. What is this building and where is it located?


see Answer
Please send answers to: oldky@kyphilom.com.
 
 
 
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
It's funny how the things you read stick with you. My fifth grade reading text contained an excerpt from "My side of the Mountain", the true story of a boy who ran away from home and lived in a hollow hemlock in the woods of upstate New York. Thirty years later, I still remember his descriptions and drawings of the local flora, and the environment, written as only one who lived off the land with little more than a boy's pocket knife could know it. At the mention of "jack in the pulpit", I mentally felt, smelled and pictured the rich moist neutral soil of a mature deciduous forest, not the drier, more acid soil of a softwood forest. Beech, hemlock, poplar and maple figured prominently in his text.
The other list just didn't "feel right". The author did mention hickory and chestnuts (whose nuts he sometimes lived on) but if I recall correctly, he had to go some distance to gather them.
(Well, you did ask "how I knew"! To me, the question is: if I can remember that, why do I have three packages on my desk that I've been meaning to mail at the Post Office for at least three weeks?)
I really ought to go look that book up, and read the whole thing.
The understory plants mentioned as well as beech, hemlock, poplar and sugar maple are found in areas with deep moist cool topsoil in coves or near streams or on north facing slopes. The other tree species are found in drier upland areas with more shallow topsoil such as upper slopes and ridges.
2. Computers
The R, C, & I stand for Residential, Commercial, and Industrial zones. In Simcity, you must keep a balance of these zones to keep the city "running". The RCI indicator shows which of these are currently in demand. In general, that balance is approximately R = I+C.
3. Philosophy and Science
This would be the Adler planetarium located in Chicago, Illinois.
4. Culture
The Dome of the Rock (Qubbet-es-Sachra, also known as the "Mosque of Omar") in Jerusalem is far from typical of Islamic architecture. It was built in the seventh century, but rebuilt and renovated in the eleventh with strong Roman and Byzantine influences. It's external octagonal walls surround a more typically early Islamic cylindrical core.
 
 

Jump back to the top.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

War XVI - battle 7
1. Forestry
Gifford Pinchot was one of the first forestry instructors at Biltmore Estates. For what else is he well known? Where is Biltmore Estates and why would they need a forestry instructor?
see Answer
2. Computers
Without a JIT compiler the JVM must interpret bytecode. What is the primary purpose of including a JIT compiler in the JVM?
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
If I continue to go in the direction indicated by the north pointing arrow on a compass, will I eventually arrive at the geographical North Pole of the Earth? If not, why not?
see Answer
4. Music
When you're lost and all alone there ain't no name for lonely.
But, what are Tess, Joe and Maria?
see Answer
Please send answers to: oldky@kyphilom.com.
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
 
1. Forestry
Biltmore estates is located in Asheville, North Carolina, and this location represents the beginnings of the American forestry program. When George Vanderbilt acquired the land, it was overlogged and overfarmed and needed to be rehabilitated. Landscaper Frederick Olmsted enlisted Pinchot to rebuild and manage the acreage (roughly 5000 today). Their work resulted in a working estate that melded into the local natural forest, and eventually became the first scientific school of forestry in the US. He was well known for his efforts in making forestry a national program under Pres. Roosevelt. He was also known for his "Pinchot Roads"; as Governor of Pennsylvania during the depression he devised a method (using less equipment in an effort to employ more people) to pave some 20,000 miles of roads so that farmers could get their products to consumers.
2. Computers
The JIT compiler (Just-In-Time), if included, will take the bytecode and compile it into native code for the machine you are running on. This usually will result in a faster execution, since Java cannot statically compile until methods are actually called. In addition, if JIT has compiled a method in native code, it can be reused as execution continues. In some cases, there is no gain from using JIT vs. interpreting bytecode.
3. Philosophy and Science
No, you will not. When you are reading a compass, you are actually reading the direction of the magnetic north pole, not true north. True or geographic north is defined as the intersection of all longitude lines, whereas magnetic north is approximately 11 degrees inclined from the axis of rotation of the earth, and declined (angular difference) from the geographic north depending on the compass location. Since the core of the earth is always changing, the magnetic north also varies; for example, the declination changes approximately 1/2 to 1 degree every 5 years, so to use a compass correctly with a given map, you need to also factor in this information (and use a current map!). For a good explanation, see http://www.ussartf.org/compass_basics.htm.
4. Music
This comes from the song "They call the wind Maria" in the musical "Paint your Wagon", written by Frederick Loewe and Alan Jay Lerner. Tess is rain, Joe is fire, and Maria is the wind.
 
 

Jump back to the top.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

War XVI - battle 6
1. Forestry
Which one does not belong and why?
see Answer
2. Computers
Which of the following can I use as a variable identifier to store a number in Java 2?
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
Which one does not belong and why?
see Answer
4. Math
Three cars traveling along a road in the same direction are, at a certain moment, in the following positions in relation to one another. Andrews is a certain distance behind Brooks, and Carter is twice that distance in front of Brooks. Each car travels at its own uniform speed with the result that Andrews passes Brooks in seven minutes and passes Carter five minutes later. In how many minutes after Andrews would Brooks pass Carter?
see Answer
Please send answers to: oldky@kyphilom.com.
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
 
1. Forestry
Quercus montana, since it is a member of the White Oak group (Leucobalanus), while the others are all members of the Red Oak group (Erythrobalanus).
2. Computers
The rules for Java variable identifiers are simple:
    * The identifier must start with a letter, dollar sign ($) or underscore (_)
    * It must consist entirely of letters, dollar signs, underscores, or digits.
    * It is case sensitive: AB, aB, Ab and ab are different identifiers.
    * It can't be a Java "keyword" or "reserved word"
Reserved words are basic values that cannot be changed: "true", "false", "null".

Java keyword are defined functions or operations; currently: abstract, assert, boolean, break, byte, case, catch, char, class, const1, continue, default, do, double, else, extends, final, finally, float, for, goto, if, implements, import, instanceof, int, interface, long, native, new, package, private, protected, public, return, short, static, strictfp, super, switch, synchronized, this, throw, throws, transient, try, void, volatile, while,

The keywords "goto" and "const" are legacy keywords, though are not actually used in Java anymore. This is probably wise. A programmer who works in several languages [and what programmer doesn't?) could easily be misled by a statement where const is really a variable identifier! The rationale is illustrated by the answer to this question: "print", which is NOT a keyword in Java, and could result in some very misleading code, if you used it as a variable identifier.
3. Philosophy and Science
The Anas platyrhynchos (mallard), which belongs to the family Anatidae (waterfowl), while all the others belong to the Ardeidae (heron) family.
4. Math
Let Va, Vb, Vc represent the speeds of Andrew , Brooks, and Carter respectively, and x represent the unknown distance between A and B.
Then Va-Vb = x/7 and Va-Vc=3x/12 = x/4.
Manipulating these two equations gives Vb-Vc = x/4 - x/7 = 3x/28.
At this speed relative to Carter, Brooks will cover the distance 3x in 2x/(3x/28) minutes, which amounts to 18 min 40 sec.
Brooks would therefore pass Carter 6 minutes and 40 seconds after Andrews
 
 

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War XVI - battle 5
1. Forestry
What family?
see Answer
2. Computers
Fill in the question marks?
ls -l temp.txt
-rw-rw-r--    1 duane    duane          70 Feb  1 10:55 temp.txt
chmod o+w temp.txt
ls -l temp.txt
??????????    1 duane    duane          70 Feb  1 10:55 temp.txt

see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
TANSTAAFL
Discuss the implications. Can you name and defend an exception?
see Answer
4. Literature
Complete the list and tell what became of them.
  1. Adam Selene
  2. Simon Jester

see Answer
Please send answers to: oldky@kyphilom.com.
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
 
1. Forestry
Tsuga heterophylla -western hemlock
Pseudotsuga menziesii -Douglas fir
Pinus longaeva - bristlecone pine
Picea pungens - blue spruce
Cedrus atlantica - Atlas Cedar
Abies procera - noble fir
Larix occidentalis - western larch
Keteleeria davidiana - a rare pine found mostly in China and Taiwan
These are all members of the family Pinaceae.
2. Computers
-rw-rw-rw-
This part of the LiSt command output specifies the Read/Write/Execute permissions for an entry.
The first character (on the left) can have several (up to 11 or more, depending in the OS) values, such as "d" for a directory, "l" for a symbolic link, or "-" for a standard file (as opposed to a special block, special character, or named pipe [First In, First Out] file).
The next nine character consists of three groups of three characters and specifies the Read, Write and eXecute permission for the user [owner], group of other [public], always reading left to right. A '-' indicates that the permission is denied. an 'r', 'w' or 'x' (according to the column) indicates that the corresponding permission has been allowed
For clarity, let's break that 9 character string up:
TYPE USER GROUP OTHER
- rw- rw- rw-
As you can see the user and group can read or write the file, but the public can only read it. If you want to make information publicly available, you usually don't want unauthorized people changing that information. Execution is disabled for all, so this is probably not an executable file (not surprising, given its short length - 70 bytes), but there are cases when an executable is "turned off" to prevent accidental execution. The "x" (eXecute) character can also have other values, like "L", which means the file is locked during access to prevent the file from being accessed by more than one user at a time [Let's say Alice opens a file to change her address, but Bob is already changing his phone number. That's trouble: Bob will save his work and close the file, but when Alice saves *her* work, she'll be saving Bob's old phone number, undoing Bob's change.)
CHMOD (CHange MODe) is the command most often used by the user to change permissions. It can take its arguments in several forms, but he form given is the most straightforward: "chmod o+w temp.txt" enable "w" (write) permission for "o" ("other" or "public") users.
It's also common to set all permissions at once using a single number, by treating each permission in the 9-character chain as a bit in an octal number. (That's actually much simpler than it sounds, but it's a bit off-topic for this answer.It's explained in many FAQs and tutorials) The take-home lesson is that you can set ALL the permissions with a single 3-4 digit number, which is much simpler than setting them one at a time. It's also easier to remember that, say, a perl script on your web server may need permissions set to 755 (a single number) than it is to remember nine separate permissions
3. Philosophy and Science
TANSTAAFL = "There Ain't No Such Thing As A Free Lunch"
In the broadest sense, this means that there is always an element of compromise in any solution, or that any change from the current situation has a cost. Laws, for example, are considered to be a good idea, but they may cost you some freedom. In any major urban hospital, there's some drug rep hosting a "free lunch" almost every weekday, but the hidden cost is the risk of being swayed by their thinly veiled sales pitch and -ahem- "skewed" presentation of clinical data.
Is there a "free lunch" out there somewhere? It's largely a matter of interpretation. For example, just as we noted that laws come at the cost of some freedom, total freedom would come at the cost of constantly watching your back in a lawless universe.
I consider TANSTAAFL to be a guide, more than a rule. Whenever you see something that seems to bee too good to be true, consider its possible costs. Conversely, when you're considering something that comes at a cost, consider that most things come with a cost, even doing nothing, and weigh *those* hidden costs.
Exception to this? My guess would be the obvious - the Sun. Provides light, heat, and energy, and since it cannot be controlled by man, it cannot "cost".
4. Literature
In "The Moon is a Harsh Mistress", 'Adam Selene' was the nom de plume of the Moon's sentient "administrative computer turned revolutionary". The name roughly translates to The Man of the Moon ("adam" is Hebrew for "man", and is often incorrectly taken as the personal name of the "first human" in the Biblical book of Genesis; "Selene" was the Greek goddess of the moon, and is sometimes used to refer to the moon itself).
"Simon Jester" was another alter-ego for this same computer, a formally unnamed "High-Optional, Logical, Multi-Evaluating Supervisor, Mark IV, Mod. L" (H.O.L.M.E.S. IV) -- nicknamed "Mycroft" (after Mycroft Holmes, Sherlock Holmes' smarter brother) and commonly called "Mike" by the top echelon of his fellow revolutionaries (and readers)
Their fate is indeterminate. Mike was officially destroyed when damage sustained during the War with Earth disconnected enough of his outlying processors and network to drop him below the critical threshold for self- awareness. Even when the damage was repaired "Mike" did not return to "life". I recall having my doubts about his 'death' at the time (though, after 30 years, the details elude me). I felt that he was secretly alive but 'stepped off the public stage'.
Much later, Heinlein brought him back in a different scenario. In "The Cat Who Walks Through Walls" Colin Campbell was recruited by the Time Corps to retrieve him from the final moments of that battle, but the mission's outcome is unknown. Passing references in "To Sail Beyond the Sunset" reveal that the rescue must have been successful: he is working with Pallas Athene (another sentient computer) on structural simulations for the Time Corps.
 
 

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War XVI - battle 4
1. Forestry
When I have surveyed around a forest tract to obtain the metes and bounds of a closed traverse I may want to use the DMD method to calculate additional information. What information would I obtain by this method? How does the DMD method work?
see Answer
2. Computers
Where would we find the MANIFEST.MF file in the META-INF directory and what is its purpose?
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
In recent years when a sheep was cloned there was almost instant agreement among world politicians that human cloning should be banned. There was little or no discussion of why such a ban should be imposed. What would Lazarus Long (aka Woodrow Wilson Smith) think about such a ban? Why do you think he would take such a position?
see Answer
4. Literature
Who are these people?
see Answer
Please send answers to: oldky@kyphilom.com.
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
 
1. Forestry
The DMD (double-meridian-distance) method calculates the area (ft^2) of an irregularly shaped plot of land. This method is based on right triangle theory, and uses half of the product of latitudes (elevations) * distance from centerline (departures) to determine area of a right triangle that is "piece" of the whole shape. These pieces can then be added (or subtracted as necessary) to give the "correct" total area.
For a very good example, see http://www.adtdl.army.mil/cgi-bin/atdl.dll/fm/5-233/Ch4.htm

A "metes and bounds" survey is basically a circuit of a parcel of land or "plot". Starting at some point on the boundary, The surveyor measures the successive direction and heading of each straight segment of the boundary until s/he returns to the starting point (completes a circuit of the property).

Sometimes boundaries follow a meander (i.e. are defined by a curving geographical structure like a cliff or creek), which can be a bit of a problem (especially if the structure shifts over time) but we'll presume the surveyor diligently surveyed the curve as a series of short straight transits.

In DMD, we draw a reference line (a "meridian") on the plat, then draw a perpendicular line from the meridian to each vertex, noting both the distance from the meridian to the vertex and the "latitude" or point where each perpendicular intersects the meridian. Traditionally, the reference is a north-south line (a "meridian" of longitude) through the westernmost vertex of the boundary (which simplifies rectification of the ± sign of each sub-area), but any line will worth mathematically.

This creates a parallelogram between each pair of successive vertices: the sides are of the parallelogram are the meridian and and the plot boundary; the bases of the parallelogram are the perpendiculars to each vertex.

The area of each parallelogram is given by L x (D[1]+D[2])/2 , where: D[1] is the distance from the meridian to the first vertex D[2] is the distance from the meridian to the second vertex L = the 'latitude' (distance along the meridian between the two perpendiculars) (think of this a multiplying the "height" by an "average width")

To calculate the area of a plot by DMD, we take the areas of the parallelograms created by each successive pair of verticies (AB, BC, CD, etc) and add them if they contain part of the parcel of land, and subtract them if they do not. This diagram may help (you only need to heed A-E, I-J are 'average' or 'midpoint' distances for illustration only):

Think of each vertex being either 'far' or 'near', depending on whether the perpendicular must cross the plot to reach the vertex. If both vertices are "near" the meridian, the parallelogram will be entirely between the plot and the meridian [the near area]; if at least one vertex is "far", the parallelogram will contain part of the plot and (usually) some 'near' area between the meridian and the plot.

If you subtract the "near" parallelograms from the the parallelograms containing both near + plot areas, you will be left with the plot area alone.

This method is called "DOUBLE Meridian Distance" because it is mathematically simpler to ignore the 1/2 term in each parallelogram (effectively doubling the distance from the meridian), and simply divide the total by 2 at the end.

2. Computers
The META-INF directory is included in a Java ".jar" file. The manifest.mf file is used to define extension and package related data in the Java ".jar" archive file. See http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.3/docs/guide/jar/jar.html

I think the /META-INF/MANIFEST.MF file originated with the CVS source control method (I may be wrong about that). CVS allows (for example) one programmer to "check in" changes to the source code in a group project. Since changes in one file of a package may require changes to other files (e.g. function libraries), it is important to assure that all the correct "new" versions are present, or unpredictable results may ensue. Some form of source control is needed to assure that one programmer's changes can be run and examined without disrupting the work of others.

MANIFEST.MF contains a list of files present within the archive itself, and may contain entries pointing to signatures (.SX) or signature instructions (.SF). Not all files in the archive must be listed in the manifest, but all files which are to be signed must be listed. The manifest file itself must NOT be listed.

the MANIFEST.INF file entries are used slightly differently by some packages, but as a general principle, each entry contains a dirpath/filename whose presence is checked before execution, and (usually) base-64 digests of META- INF/filename.SX (signature files). Each entry verifies that the correct signature for this sub-version is present, while the signature files are used to verify the files themselves.

Other refinements include "magic keys" which are application specific entries, and support for digitally signed binary versions of .SF (signature instruction) files which usually have extensions like .RSA, .DSA or .PGP

This scheme of manifesting is used by several "archiving" or 'packaging' programs. Originally archiving programs were used to compress and format files for efficient long term storage (e.g. on tape) but by the end of the 70s they were used as much to 'package' related files together [e.g. source code, libraries, signatures, data, etc.) as to compress them. Perhaps the most notable archiver that puts MANIFEST.INF in /META-INF is "jar" or the Java ARchiver. .JAR files don't have to contain a manifest, but they often do.
3. Philosophy and Science
Long would first note that the politicians are trying to control the masses by placing a ban on cloning. He would then point out that the reason for the ban would have been made on a purely theological basis, of which he believes to be absurd. He would believe that it is up to humans to pursue this and see what becomes of it, however he would disagree on the procedure of cloning, since it is against his great love of women and the physical relations that normally produce another human.
Actually Lazarus Long approved of cloning because two female clones were produced using his DNA and he considered them his sisters/daughters. See "Time Enough for Love" by Robert A. Heinlein beginning at chapter XIII, Variations on a Theme.

Lazarus Long would not be averse to cloning, since he cloned himself into female versions (the twins, Lapis Lazuli and Lorelei Lee) and copied the memory and consciousness of Ira Weatherall's computer Minerva into a cloned body. He seemed to believe that human dignity and rights had their genesis in inborn potential, leaving no conflict or distinction between 'natural' and cloned humans. It also means he probably would not favor "organ farming" clones for replacement parts.

To him, 'identity' is an internal matter. He has little concern for it as an external legal issue, except as needed to satisfy the "Ms. Grundies" who would parochially intervene if all the i's weren't dotted and all the t's, crossed. [This is better illustrated in Heinlein's "I Will Fear no Evil"]

He also seems to believe that we can sacrifice our humanity in part or in toto by our acts or failure to live up to that potential, based on his quotes and actions. He might not agree with me on this, but he was never troubled by Thoreau's "hobgoblin of small minds" (i.e. foolish consistency). He certainly didn't hesitate to label prudes and many political/bureaucratic types as subhuman (their stultifying rigidity amounting to an autoamputation of the mind); many criminals, likewise, could be slain with impunity (while others are ennobled, if he agreed with their motives or needs).

His relationship with Buck, a clearly self-aware genetically enhanced talking "mule" illustrates many of the complexities and possible inconsistencies of his view of sentience and human dignity. While he treated Buck with dignity, it was as an animal (He would treat a nonsapient cat equally well), not as a "human". After Buck's death, Lazarus cooly killed (in self defense) a family of hooligan desperados who had stolen, for no good reason, Buck's headstone. I'm sure there's more than one potent analogy there, but I'm too tired to work it out just now.

In the end, LL was thoroughly subjective, despite a veneer of hard-as-nails objectivity. His almost knee-jerk iconoclasm casts an instructive light on the social conventions we ordinarily accept without much thought, but as loveable and heroic as he is, he is not and would not wish to be, a role model.

LL is a thrill seeker who insists on living by his own [highly protean] impressions of the moment. This philosophy, "Don't do as I do, but never try to stop me from doing as I will" claims his mind as the ultimate arbiter in all things, yet simultaneously disavows it. As much as I love him, his lack of moral self-justification (which he largely feels is unnecessary), while simultaneously judging others, is too facile to serve as a guide.

LL would clone as and if it suited him, convinced of his good intent with no regard for the precedent he was setting. (More than once, he was caught out by a bad example he had set). As a heroic protagonist, he needn't fear: all would turn out well in the end. Heinlein never set him in the midst of true moral ambiguity (ambiguity by the Heinleinian moral compass, anyway), because RAH's style is to explicate boldly, not to wallow in the murkier corners.

LL clearly believed that suicidal impulse could be a valid situational response, having made the attempt himself, but I wonder how he would feel if his twin clone 'daughters' or Minerva found that their existences did not satisfy them? I doubt he would feel much lasting responsibility for their plight, not even a parent's sorrow. LL loved, and left behind, a great many wives and children, with no regret. Perhaps that is necessary for a person with his longevity, but despite his ability to plan for the long term, I'd say he was a creature of who lived in the present (and his past) not the future.
4. Literature
These are all pseudonyms for author Robert A. Heinlein, also known as the Grandmaster of Science Fiction. See http://home.t-online.de/home/herbsev/rahc.htm

ANSON MCDONALD were RAH's middle names, underwhich he wrote several of his early works, including the classic "Solution Unsatisfactory" (Astounding Science Fiction, May 1941 - which predicted the Cold War well before the US even entered WWII) and favorites like " - We Also Walk Dogs" and "By His Bootstraps".

As LYLE MONROE, he wrote "Let there be Light" and other 'surprise ending' stories with a less philosophical weight. ("Lyle" and "Monroe" were last names in his mother's family, the Monroes from President Monroe) These were mostly stories that had been rejected by the inestimable John W. Campbell Jr. of Astounding Science Fiction.

As far as I know, he only wrote one work as John Riverside: a collection of stories called "The Unpleasant Profession of Jonathan Hoag", but IIRC (it's been decades since I read it) that collection could have been a "Best of" anthology for many SF careers.

Similarly, he only wrote "Elsewhen" as CALEB SAUNDERS, and SIMON YORK was his pseudonym for his sole mystery short: "They Do It With Mirrors."
 
 

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War XVI - battle 3
1. Forestry
Below is a chart of tree volumes by log scale:
TREE SCALE - 1  16-FOOT LOG HIGH TREES
DBH      BOARD FT.  DOYLE   SCRIBNER    INTERNATIONAL 1/4 INCH KERF
 10                   14        29        36
 12                   29        47        56
 14                   49        69        80
 16                   74        95       107
 18                  104       125       139
 20                  139       158       174
 22                  178       195       214
 24                  223       236       257
 26                  272       281       304
 28                  327       330       356
 30                  386       383       411
 32                  451       439       470
 34                  520       499       534
 36                  594       563       601
 38                  673       631       672
 40                  757       702       747
 42                  846       778       826
 44                  940       857       909
 46                 1039       940       996
 48                 1143      1027      1087
 50                 1252      1117      1182
 
TREE SCALE - 2  16-FOOT LOG HIGH TREES
DBH      BOARD FT.  DOYLE   SCRIBNER    INTERNATIONAL 1/4 INCH KERF
 10                   22        46        60
 12                   44        75        91
 14                   74       112       130
 16                  114       156       177
 18                  163       208       231
 20                  221       268       292
 22                  288       334       361
 24                  365       408       437
 26                  451       490       521
 28                  546       579       612
 30                  651       675       711
 32                  765       779       816
 34                  888       891       930
 36                 1021      1009      1050
 38                 1162      1136      1178
 40                 1313      1269      1314
 42                 1474      1411      1457
 44                 1643      1559      1607
 46                 1822      1715      1765
 48                 2010      1879      1930
 50                 2207      2050      2103
 
TREE SCALE - 3  16-FOOT LOG HIGH TREES
DBH      BOARD FT.  DOYLE   SCRIBNER    INTERNATIONAL 1/4 INCH KERF
 10                   28        57        78
 12                   53        96       120
 14                   92       145       173
 16                  145       206       236
 18                  211       277       310
 20                  290       359       395
 22                  382       451       490
 24                  488       554       597
 26                  607       669       713
 28                  740       793       841
 30                  886       929       979
 32                 1045      1075      1128
 34                 1218      1232      1288
 36                 1404      1400      1458
 38                 1603      1579      1640
 40                 1816      1768      1831
 42                 2042      1968      2034
 44                 2282      2179      2247
 46                 2535      2401      2471
 48                 2801      2634      2706
 50                 3080      2877      2951

What does the term, "1/4 INCH KERF", in the above table mean?
see Answer
2. Computers
This is the program used to produce the above table:
DEF FNDV!(D!,H!)=(.55743*H!^2+41.51275*H!-29.37337)+(2.78043-.04516*H!^2-8.772721*H!)*D!+(.04177-.01578*H!^2+.59042*H!)*D!^2
DEF FNIV!(D!,H!)=(1.52968*H!^2+9.58615*H!-13.35212)+(1.79620-.27465*H!^2-2.59995*H!)*D!+(.04482-.00961*H!^2+.45997*H!)*D!^2
DEF FNSV!(D!,H!)=(17.53508*H!-.59242*H!^2-22.50365)+(3.02988-.02302*H!^2-4.34381*H!)*D!+(.51593*H!-.02035*H!^2-.01969)*D!^2

FOR H!=1 TO 3
   CLS                                                                     
   PRINT "TREE SCALE -"+STR$(H!)+"  16-FOOT LOG HIGH TREES"
   PRINT "DBH      BOARD FT.  DOYLE   SCRIBNER    INTERNATIONAL 1/4 INCH KERF"
   FOR D!=10 TO 50 STEP 2                                                  
      PRINT D!,USING "##########";FNDV!(D!,H!),FNSV!(D!,H!),FNIV!(D!,H!)
   NEXT                                                                    
   INPUT A$                                                                
NEXT
END
Why in line 10 does the string, "##########", have so many #s even though the largest number in the output is 3080? Why is the line, "INPUT A$" in the program?
see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
What is located at Martian latitude -64.6 degrees and longitude 243.8 degrees in Quad MC28SE on Map I-1453. Its diameter is approximately 83 kilometers.
see Answer
4. Logic
Four mothers, each with one daughter, went into a shop to buy ribbon. Each mother bought twice as many yards as her daughter, and each person bought as many yards of ribbon as the number of cents she paid for each yard. Mrs. Jones spent 76 cents more than Mrs. White; Nora bought three yards less than Mrs. Brown; Gladys bought two yards more than Hilda, who spent 48 cents less than Mrs. Smith. What is the name of Mary's mother?
see Answer
Please send answers to: oldky@kyphilom.com.
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
Saw kerf is the width of the path cut by the sawteeth as the saw blade moves through the log. The "1/4 inch KERF" in the table refers to the defect allowance due to the saw cut, as used in the International 1/4" rule for log scale, which accounts for taper in a log.
See:
http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/forestprod/thinkerf/kerf.htm
and
http://www.fs.fed.us/im/directives/fsh/2409.11/2409.11_70.doc
2. Computers
The string "##########" simply formats each column of printed numbers with a width of ten spaces - this allows for alignment with the headers and makes it nicely readable . The INPUT statement forces a key entry to continue with the printing of the next table.
3. Philosophy and Science
The Heinlein Crater, named after Robert Heinlein in 1994.
See:
http://members.aol.com/lisachakra/mars/heinleincrater.html and
http://www.nitrosyncretic.com/rah/mars.html contain additional information and pictures.
4. Logic
Mrs Jones
The amount spent by each individual - mothers as well as daughters - is a perfect square. Therefore, I resorted to a simple examination of the list of perfect squares, starting from 1, through 4, 9, 16,... , looking for a set of eight perfect squares meeting all of the requirements given. The first such set (and I believe the only one, although I did not attempt a proof of this) is: 16, 36,64,81,100,144,324, and 400.

In order, the daughter-mother pairs and the yards bought by each, are:
*       Hilda - Mrs Smith - 4 - 8
*       Gladys - Mrs Brown - 6 - 12
*       Nora - Mrs White - 9 - 18
*       Mary - Mrs Jones - 10 - 20
 
 

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War XVI - battle 2
1. Forestry
Which would be least suitable as a Christmas tree?
  1. White pine
  2. Scotch pine
  3. Virginia pine
  4. Fraser fir
  5. Douglas fir
  6. Larch
  7. Norway spruce
  8. Blue spruce
  9. Red cedar

see Answer
2. Computers
What line must be added to this Java source file so that it will compile?

import javax.swing.*; //import classes

public class Demo{
   public static void main(String[] args){
      while (!(choice.equalsIgnoreCase("x"))){   // begin while loop
         String inputString = JOptionPane.showInputDialog(
            "Enter order total: ");
         double orderTotal = Double.parseDouble(inputString);
         double discountAmount = 0;
         if (orderTotal >= 100)
            discountAmount = orderTotal * .2;
         else
            discountAmount = orderTotal * .1;
         double invoiceTotal = orderTotal - discountAmount;
         String message = "Order total: " + orderTotal + "\n"
                        + "Discount amount: " + discountAmount + "\n"
                        + "Invoice total: " + invoiceTotal + "\n\n"
                        + "To continue, press Enter.\n"
                        + "To exit, enter 'x': ";
         choice = JOptionPane.showInputDialog(message);
      } // end while loop
      System.exit(0);
   }
}

see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
The refractive index of what medium is 1.00000?
see Answer
4. History
In a prelude to later battles the opposing force with 20,000 men destroyed eight-tenths of the Russian army of 80,000 men or more at the River Khalka, near the Azov Sea. This occurred in the early part of the 13th century. Russian prince Mstislav of Kiev sent the Russians to do battle. Who were they battling? Who was the leader of those opposing forces? When these forces returned to the area over 20 years later what was the outcome of that military campaign?
see Answer
Please send answers to: oldky@kyphilom.com.
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry
Several factors make a good Christmas tree. When young (ca 8 feet), it should have a conical shape, with enough branch and foliage density for good definition, and sturdy well-spaced branches for ornaments. It should have good needle retention, pleasing color and fragrance, and not drip resin.

Farmed firs, balsam and spruce are popular Christmas trees, with all the above traits and short rounded needles that won't hurt children/pets. Balsam Fir is the preferred choice in Canada. Some prefer the upward sloping branches of fir, balsam and spruce to the downward sloping pines.

Blue spruce -and even more so, Norway spruce- have a lovely shape, but must be kept very well watered or they will lose needles rapidly (and can be a problem even then) This doesn't keep them from being a popular Christmas tree - but I would think twice before getting one myself.

As an oddball plus, the Douglas fir (not a true fir) is a host for parasitic Dwarf Mistletoe, so otherwise undesirable infected (infectious) trees on a Douglas fir farm might be culled and sold at a premium at Christmas (I've never seen this actually done; it may not be practical.)

Scotch Pines, the most common US Christmas tree, are conical when fully mature, but must be trimmed to shape annually as they are grown, to have the right shape at a home market size. In general, pine species are popular Christmas trees, whether they are naturally conical or trimmed. They have fairly good needle retention and modest aroma - but alas, they often have issues with resin or sap, which can be ruinous to carpets and wood floors

Larch is undoubtedly the worst choice. It's one of the few DECIDUOUS conifer trees. In the winter, it will lose its leaves in a blaze of autumn color, much as broadleaf deciduous trees do.
2. Computers
String choice="\n"; // you can also use "" or any value but "X" or "x"

I'm rather partial to nulling variables before their first use, regardless, but in this case, the type of variable "choice" is undefined at its first use, and should throw an compiler exception. (or at least that's how it used to work; it's been years since I dabbled in Java)
3. Philosophy and Science
The refractive index of vacuum is 1. The refractive index can be defined as the ratio [speed of light in vacuum]/[speed of light in selected medium]

Technically, this is the "absolute refractive index" - in optics, a plain "refractive index" is defined for each specific pair of media, because not every pair of media perfectly obeys the idealized case (and in production settings, the adhesive layer can factored into this "refractive index")
4. History
After Genghis Khan's war against the Khwarezmian empire (1219-1222), he sent a reconnaissance force of 20,000 under his new 'general' Subedei and a fellow "dog of war," Chepe. The adventures of this force are the stuff of legends. In the eyes of many, Subedei was the military equal of Temuchin (though not nearly as subtle at strategic psychology). He and his advisor Yeh- lu Chu'tsai were major factors in the continuation of the statesmanship introduced by Genghis (and advisor Yeh-lu) after genghis's death.

Subedei had no intention to engage Russia with their small force - especially not since Mstislav (having heard how the reconaaisance force had steamrollered local armies during its incursions) had rallied 80,000 troops from Kiev, Smolensk, Kursk, Chernigov and other principalities.

However, when the Russians killed 10 Mongol envoys, Subedei felt he had little choice, as reflected in his response to Prince Mstislav: "You have killed our envoys. As you wish for war, so be it. But we have not attacked you. May the spirits be judge of all men."

[Not that his force's intent was exactly peaceable - it was preparation for a imminent campaign against Europe, foiled by the death of Genghis Khan]

The actual strategy used by Subedei was to feign retreat for over a week, as the Russians pursued, growing more confident by the day, until they reached a location of Subedei's choosing, where he whirled his army around, archers in front. The Mongol bow had 40-50% more range and power than say, the better known 13th cent English longbow, and even exceeding the range of the balky cannons of that era (not that the Russians had any), and their deep oiled saddles with sturdy stirrups gave them a stable platform for superior accuracy while riding. An iron helmet, a coat of mail over a raw silk shirt, and a cuirass provided the archers with defensive capability

After the archers shattered the Russian vanguard, the Mongol heavy cavalry - each carrying two bows, a dagger, a battle-ax, a twelve-foot lance, and a lasso- plunged in to finish the job, and then the Archers and heavy infantry together pursued the forces to the rear

Almost ten years after Genghis Khan's death, the the Mongol Kuriltai (general assembly) finally authorized the "second European campaign" (1236-1242) under Subedei and Batu Khan ("Bathy rex Tartarorum", son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan).

In 1236, they defeated the Volga Bulgars north of the Caspian. In 1237, they defeated the Rus Tribes, culminating in a December horse crossing of the frozen Volga River to lay seige to the new Russian capital Vladimir (Moscow). By summer 1238, all the northern Russian principalities were conquered, as well as the forests beyond. Only Novgorod escaped, in exchange for tribute paid to the Mongols. They then turned south, conquering cities as they went, until, in November 1240, they crossed the Dneiper to Kiev (which had been the Russian capital for three centuries before Vladimir/Moscow).

In 1241, they split into two forces to invade Poland and Hungary. The Polish branch, under Subetei and his sons, decimated the joint Polish-German armies, but met stiff resistance in Bohemia and had to flee Czechoslovakia. Subetai's son kadan led a force of 30,000 through Transylvania, into the Danube Valley, and into Hungary, then went on to Moldavia, Bukovina and Transylvania. Another son, Kaidu, sent a raiding party along the Baltic coast, as he himself raided westward into Silesia. In mid April, Kadan and Kaidu joined the main Mongol army under Batu Khan in central Hungary. Late in 1241, the Mongols crossed the frozen Danubeto raid northern Italy, toward Venice and Treviso, and up the Danube to Vienna. Mongols chased Bela into Austria and Germany then raided all the way to the Adriatic in Dalmatia. During the whole campaign, the European countries couldn't resolve their differences to fight a common enemy: Austria seized parts of Hungary and the Pope was rumored to be trying to induce the Mongols to attack his rivals and enemies.

On Dec 11, 1241, Ogedei Khan died back home in Mongolia. The news reached Batu Khan's camp in Feb. 1242, and he began to lead his forces back east, essentially abandoning the southernmost front, but Batu eventually decided to retain control of the southern Russian steps and the northern principalities. He didn't return back east to the Mongol home territory despite many requests, but he sent many of his soldiers back.

Subedei died in 1246, at the age 0f 70
 
 

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War XVI - battle 1
1. Forestry
Farmers in the limestone areas of central Kentucky often go to their fields to find and cut their own live Christmas tree. They cut a smaller version of the evergreen trees in this picture. What species are they using for a Christmas tree?

Farmers in the sandstone areas of eastern Kentucky usually find a different type of evergreen for a Christmas tree. What species would you expect they might use? (Three different species could be correct.)
see Answer
2. Computers
What operating system is this?
Click on the picture to enlarge


see Answer
3. Philosophy and Science
This Brazilian was the father of aviation in France in the early part of the twentieth century. When he was buried in his native Brazil in 1932 every plane flying in the world tipped its wings as a gesture of respect. Who was he?
see Answer
4. Sports
Katie Casey was baseball mad,
Had the fever and had it bad:
Just to root for the hometown crew,
Every song Katie blew.
On a Saturday, her young beau
Called to see if she'd like to go
To see a show but Miss Kate said,
"No, I'll tell you what you can do."
What can he do? Who wrote these words when?
see Answer
Please send answers to: oldky@kyphilom.com.
 
 
Points on this battle were won as follows:
 
 
1. Forestry - 10 points available
B) Virginia pine
In Eastern Kentucky other native evergreens which might be used but would be less likely are hemlock and shortleaf pine.
2. Computers
This is the KDE Linux desktop.
3. Philosophy and Science
Albert Santos-Dumont
4. Sports
In the minds of baseball fans everywhere, this one is a classic part of the seventh inning stretch. She wants him to:
"Take me out to the ball game,
Take me out with the crowd.
Buy me some peanuts and cracker jack,
I don't care if I never get back.
Let me root, root, root for the home team,
If they don't win it's a shame.
For it's one, two, three strikes, you're out,
At the old ball game."
This was penned by Jack Norworth, a 30 year old vaudeville song and dance man in 1908 on a Manhattan subway.
See: http://www.ballparks.com/baseball/general/chatter/20020807.htm
 
 

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Standings in the War - XVI

 
 

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Last revised May 9, 2004.

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Duane Bristow (oldky@kyphilom.com)

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