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War of the Minds - Forestry Questions

I21
In the study of wildlife management what happened at the Kaibab Penisula is often used as an example to illustrate one of the basic principles of population dynamics. Where is the Kaibab Penisula? What happened there? What principle does this illustrate?
I20
The total aggregate of all environmental factors affecting the survival and growth of a given tree species can be expressed in a numeric form foresters call site index. What is the definition of site index and what two tree measurements are necessary to determine it?
I19
John, a forester, while taking a walk with his niece and nephew came upon a large oak tree in a field. He began answering their questions about where trees come from, how they grow, etc. Then they began discussing the uses of wood, the value of trees, and the size of that particular tree. Since John did not have his forestry equipment with him he cut a stick the length of his arm from his eye to his outstretched hand. He held the stick upright in his hand perpendicular to his extended arm and began backing away from the tree until he could sight across the bottom of the stick at the base of the tree and across the top of the stick to the top of the tree. What was John up to? What would he do next?
I18
What is a Biltmore stick? Where did it get that name?
I17
A green tree of forests of the Eastern United States; it has pinnately compound opposite net-veined deciduous leaves 6 to 15 inches long with 3 to 9 leaflets. It has a superior ovary with a 5 parted calyx and 4 to 6 stamens. The flowers are imperfect and the trees are dioecious. The fruit is a double samara each half long winged and one seeded. What is the scientific or latin name of this species?
I16
Kentucky bourbon soaks in solitude for years in quite warehouses built on Kentucky hillsides as it absorbs the flavor of the charred white oak barrels. Bourbon barrels are never made of red oak. Why not?
I15
What is Endothia parasitica?
and What has been its economic effect on the forests of North America?
I14
What is the scientific (latin) name of the tree which has leaves, fruits, and twigs like this?
It is a decidious tree common in the Eastern United States and one of the most valuable timber species.

I13
What is the apical meristem?
I12
In temperate climates the wood of tree stems shows annual rings by which, as most people know, one can tell the age of the tree. These rings can also be used to tell the growth history of the tree and they enable a professional forester to draw some conclusions about the history of the stand as a whole. Why do annual rings occur?
I11
In cross section the tree stem consists of a center of pith, a zone of usually darkly colored wood, a zone of lightly colored wood, a layer of cells between the wood and the bark and, on the outside, the bark of the tree. Give the name of the type of tissue in each of these four zones outside the pith and the function of each.
I10
A measure of the density of tree growth in a timber stand is the per acre cross sectional area of tree stems at breast height (4 1/2 feet above the ground). What is this measure of stand density called?
I9
What is the scientific (latin) name of the tree which has leaves, fruits, and twigs like this?
It is a decidious tree common in the Eastern United States and one of the most valuable timber species.

I8
On the topographic map below the arrow marked 3 points to the text notation "BM 1148" and the circle marked one designates a hilltop. If all distances are in feet and the distance from the BM to the hilltop is 2300 feet horizonally what is the average percent slope within plus or minus 1%? What feature of topography is that area marked 2?

I7
On the topographic map below the arrow marked 3 points to the text notation "BM 1148". What does this mean?

I6
On the topographic map below what type of geographic structure is circled and marked 1 and how far above sea level is it at its highest point.

I5
On a topographic map what is the meaning of the term "contour interval = 20 feet"?
I4
In the United States there are three popular formulas or methods for estimating the number of board feet of lumber which can be produced from a given log. These are called "log rules". Name any two of these.
I3
What is the standard height for measuring the diameter of the trunk of a standing tree and what is this diameter called?
I2
What is the scientific (latin) name of the tree which has leaves, fruits, and twigs like this?
It is an aromatic tree common in the Eastern United States with three types of leaves on the same tree.

I1
What is the scientific (latin) name of the tree which has leaves, flowers, and twigs like this?
It is a decidious tree common in the Eastern United States.

II15
What is a relascope? What is its use?
see Answer
II14
What is the scientific (Latin) name of the tree which has leaves like this?
It is a deciduous tree common in the Eastern United States with bark that is broken into long shaggy plates. It is considered an important mast producer for wildlife.

see Answer
II13
What is the scientific (Latin) name of the tree which has leaves like this?
It is a deciduous tree common in moist soils in the Eastern United States.

see Answer
II12
I have 100 acres of northern red oak trees, Quercus rubra. The average circular spacing between trees is 37 feet. These trees when 50 years old were 70 feet tall. They have an average merchantable height of two 16 foot logs per tree. If these trees are 22 inches dbh and have a form class of 78 and if this grade of red oak is selling at the local sawmill for $600.00 per mbf, International 1/4 inch log scale and if the total cost of felling, skidding, bucking, loading and hauling to the mill is $100.00 per mbf., what is the total dollar value (to the nearest $1,000) on the stump of this tract of timber? Is this a good site for growing Quercus rubra?
According to Mesavage and Girard a Form Class 78, two log tree with a dbh of 22 inches contains 368 board feet International 1/4 inch log rule.
II11
What is likely to happen when Pinus spp. is interplanted with Juglans nigra?
II10
A member of the Ebony family in North America, this forest tree has a fruit that is delicious after frost but if eaten before a good frost the bitter fruit will cause the mouth to pucker. Give the scientific name of this tree and tell the use of its wood in sports.
II9
On the topographic map below the circle marked one designates a hilltop. If a person walks East from one to the place marked four is he walking, in general, uphill or downhill and when he arrives at four how much will his elevation have changed? Answers to the nearest 100 units are fine.

II8
What is the scientific (Latin) name of the tree which has leaves like this?
It is a deciduous tree common in moist soils in the Eastern United States.

II7
What silvicultural tool can be used both to enhance germination of lodgepole pine seeds and to help control brown spot disease in the grass stage of longleaf pine?
II6
What is the term used for the ratio of the diameter of a tree inside bark at the top of the first 16 foot log to its diameter outside bark 4 1/2 feet above the ground?
II5
What is the scientific (Latin) name of the tree which has leaves like this?
It is a deciduous tree from Asia common as an ornamental in the United States.

II4
In point sampling with a wedge prism, Basal Area Factor 10, the plot radius factor is 33. If a tree is 10.8 inches in diameter breast height and it is located 30 feet from the plot center, will the forester measure this tree in his variable plot radius cruise if he is using a BAF 10 prism? Why or why not?
II3
On the same subject:
An alidade is used for triangulation. How and for what purpose?
What are a pulaski, a mcleod, and a council rake used to construct?
and
Why are we told to "Never undercut with the line"?
All the above questions must be answered completely, specifically and in terms relevant to the subject.
II2
What is the scientific (Latin) name of the tree which has leaves like this?
It is a deciduous tree common in the Eastern United States.
The leaves are palmately compound.
Carrying the fruit of this tree is said to bring good luck and/or prevent arthritis.

II1
What are Naval Stores? They are produced in what area of the United States? What species of trees are mainly involved?
III5
This man is collecting data to radio to the dispatch room. Specifically, what data is he collecting and how will the dispatcher use the data he sends?


see Answer
III4
In wildlife management mast from Carya spp. has been described as ice cream while mast from Quercus spp. has been described as meat and potatoes. Explain?
see Answer
III3
This dioecious tree with doubly pinnately compound leaves grows in the Midwestern United States. The leaves, up to 32 inches long, are some of the largest leaves found on any tree. The fruit contains a large legume seed with a very hard seed coat. Scarification is necessary before germination can occur. The seeds are said to be poisonous but were also said to be used by early settlers to prepare a bitter drink as a substitute for coffee. What is the scientific (Latin) name of this tree pictured below?


see Answer
III2
Late summer travelers along Interstates and other major highways in the Eastern United States, especially in Kentucky and Tennessee, often see a brown discoloration on mountainsides visible from the road. On closer inspection this color is seen to be caused by the fact that the inner tissue of the leaves of black locust trees (Robinia pseudacacia L.) is missing. What has attacked these trees?
see Answer
III1
Born in 1887, a forest ranger and ecologist in the desert southwest, he died in 1948 while fighting a brush fire. He wrote extensive wildlife management texts. Who was this man, considered the father of the modern conservation movement?
see Answer
IV14
On a topographic map with a scale of 1:24000 how many inches on the map represents a mile on the ground? How many gunter's chains is this?
see Answer
IV13
When using a steel tape to measure horizontal distances on sloping ground it is sometimes necessary to "break tape". What does this mean and why is it done?
see Answer
IV12
Joe and Sally met in their freshman year of high school. Young Joe was so smitten with her that he took Sally to a nearby woodland where he carved a heart and their initials into the bark of a young beech tree. Joe and Sally were a couple all through high school and after high school they married and moved North where they raised a son and two daughters and worked at various jobs for 35 years. They then retired and moved back to their old home town.
One day Joe suggested to Sally that they return to the woodland and find "their" beech tree. They went there one beautiful autumn afternoon and searched the sun dappled woodland walking through piles of brightly colored autumn leaves. After a while they found the old beech tree still standing.
Joe and Sally had been gone for 35 years. That plus the four years of high school means that 39 years had elasped since the initials were carved. If the beech tree grew in height 5% of its height for the first ten years, then 3% for the next ten years and then 2% for the last nine years, how high up the tree would Joe and Sally have to look to see their carved heart? Assume that the heart was originally carved at eye level or about five feet above the ground.
see Answer
IV11
Black Cherry and other Prunus spp. trees in the eastern United States often appear as in the picture below in the spring of the year. What causes this?


see Answer
IV10
Which of the following is not an angiosperm?
see Answer
IV9
I calibrated my pace and I have 11 paces per gunter's chain. I paced around a tract of forest land as follows:
        Due West 110 paces
        Due South 33 paces
        Due East 154 paces
        in a Northwesterly direction 55 paces to the beginning.
Approximately how many acres are in the tract?
see Answer
IV8
Name these tools. Be specific.


see Answer
IV7
"Where, oh where, is dear little Susie?"
"Pick 'um up and put 'um in your pocket."
"the largest tree fruit native to the United States."

Scientific name please?


see Answer
IV6
A green tree of forests of the Eastern United States; it has pinnately compound opposite net-veined deciduous leaves 8 to 12 inches long with 5 to 9 leaflets whitish beneath. It has a superior ovary with a 4 parted calyx and 2 stamens. The flowers are imperfect and the trees are dioecious. The fruit is a double samara less than 12 mm long each half winged with the wing decurrent less than 1/3 of the body length and one seeded. What is the scientific or latin name of this species? How is its wood important in sports?
see Answer
IV5
Where have all the elms gone? (long time passing.) Use scientific names.
see Answer
IV4
Before dinner I decide to have an "old fashioned". What tree species is involved in the production of the liquor in this drink? How?
My dinner companion orders a "gin and tonic". What genus of trees or shrubs is involved in the production of the liquor in this drink? How?
see Answer
IV3
What is the term for the ratio commonly expressed in the United States as the ratio of the dib at the top of the first 16 foot log to the dob at breast height?
see Answer
IV2
What is the name of the instrument below used in measuring slope and height of trees?


see Answer
IV1
Location of suspect smokes by triangulation from fire tower alidade readings at a forest fire dispatch station ideally works like this:

However in actual practice it often looks like this:

There are three most probable explanations for this. What are, at least, two of these?
see Answer
V6
What is the scientific name of this understory tree of the southern and mid-western United States? It is a member of the legume family. It often is seen blooming profusely on abandoned fields on hillsides in eastern Kentucky in early spring.


see Answer
V5
What is shiitake production?
see Answer
V4
A moist cove in the Smokey Mountains with an overstory of beech, yellow poplar, hemlock, and white oak; a closed canopy and deep topsoil. Which of the following species are most likely to thrive in the understory?
(The answer may include more than one species. It is expected to include all such species.)
see Answer
V3
What is this weird growth on a cedar tree? Although not looking like this, it can also be found on another kind of tree. What kind?


see Answer
V2
This common woody vine is usually avoided by foresters.

What is its common and scientific name?
see Answer
V1
What are the three legs of the fire tripod, removing any one of which will stop the fire? Which one is most commonly removed in fighting forest fires?
see Answer
V8
Which of the following does not belong:
see Answer
V7
The major introduced pest of eastern United States hardwood forests is native to Europe and Asia. It was originally introduced in Massachusetts in 1869 in an effort to begin a commercial silk industry in the United States. Identify this tree defoliator which spreads over long distances when egg masses are unknowingly transported from infested areas on vehicles.
see Answer
V9
Which of the following does not belong?
see Answer
V10
Is the relationship between the position of an animal in the food chain and the carrying capacity for that animal in its environment direct or indirect? Explain.
see Answer
V11

In regard to autumn color sort the following species of trees and shrubs of eastern United States into two groups as to whether the leaves are predominately red or yellow in the fall.

see Answer
V12
Foresters soon learn to evaluate the quality of a site for timber growth by means of the understory vegetation, flowering annuals and perennials and shrubs.
Which of the following would probably not be at home growing in a moist north facing appalachian cove forest which included in the overstory hemlock, beech, sugar maple and yellow poplar? (Hint: 2 out of 8.)
see Answer
V13
The parasitic shrub below has been believed to extinguish fires, promote conception and ward off evil spirits.

What is its common name?
see Answer
V14
This evergreen has very white wood.

What are its common and scientific names?
see Answer
V15
Foresters, Joe and Steve, were each sent to cruise two different timber tracts. They each collected data on 40 variable radius plots, returned to the office, analyzed their data and presented the following information to their boss.
                Joe's Data
         
        Acres - 10
        Plots - 40
        Basal Area - 80 square feet
        Trees/acre - 55
        Bd. ft./acre - 5000
        Coefficient of Variation of volume - .60
         
         
                Steve's Data
         
        Acres - 5000
        Plots - 40
        Basal Area - 55 square feet
        Trees/acre - 32
        Bd. ft./acre - 1500
        Coefficient of Variation of volume - .50
The boss said, "We need to be 95% confident that we are accurate within plus or minus 15% of actual volume on each cruise. You will both have to take additional plots to obtain this accuracy." On approximately how many additional plots should each forester collect data?
see Answer
V16
The distinctive bark pattern of this tree, native to eastern United States, makes it easy to identify at a distance. The mottled brown and white pattern is caused by the exfoliation of the outer bark exposing the lighter creamy-white inner layers.

What species is this? Scientific name, please.
see Answer
V17
Which of the following does not belong and why?
see Answer
V18
On the map below identify the three circled symbols.

Symbol number 1 is a triangle. The number "1517" is written there. What does this number mean?
see Answer
VI1
A compass needle points to the north magnetic pole rather than toward the north geographical pole (true north). The angle formed between magnetic north and true north is called declination, and allowance must be made for this factor in converting magnetic bearings and azimuths to true angular readings. Depending on the location of the observer on the earth the correction for declination varies and may be either to the east or west of north. However, if the observer is in a place on earth which is in a straight line with the true and magnetic north poles the declination is zero and no correction is needed. What is the name of this imaginary line around the earth where the declination is zero and what is the general term for all lines connecting points with equal declination?


see Answer
VI2
In point sampling if the ratio of tree diameter (dbh) to plot radius is 1:19, what is the Basal Area Factor (BAF) and what is the per acre expansion factor for an 18" dbh tree?
see Answer
VI3
In even aged southern pine plantations a 30,000 acre working circle has an average 60 year rotation length in the management plan. If annual harvests are desired and the compartment size is set to roughly equal an annual logging chance, what is the average compartment size? How would one compute the allowable annual harvest?
see Answer
VI4
This delicate woodland flower is infrequently found in appalachian hardwood forests but is fairly common in some parts of Canada. Give both its common and scientific names.


see Answer
VI5
Define
  1. Mensuration
  2. Silviculture
  3. Dendrology

see Answer
VI6
Which one of the following does not belong and why?
  1. Proteidae
  2. Taxodiaceae
  3. Salicaceae
  4. Betulaceae
  5. Fagaceae
  6. Plantanaceae
  7. Hippocastanaceae
  8. Oleaceae

see Answer
VI7
A native of Brazil and Argentina, this tree is a widely planted ornamental in Australia and grows best in tropical and semi-tropical areas.
Please give the scientific name and family.


see Answer
VI8
If a timber stand has an average basal area of 70 square feet per acre and contains an average of 100 trees per acre, what is the average dbh in inches?
see Answer
VI9
This tree from eastern Asia is a widespread ornamental in the southern United States and elsewhere. What are its common and scientific names and what happens to its leaves at night?


see Answer
VI10
How is Morus alba related to Bombyx mori?
see Answer
VI11
All members of this family are achlorophyllous and hence entirely dependent on their mycorrhizal associations with fungi for all nutrients. These fungi in turn also have mycorrhizal associations with forest trees, so that members of the family could be thought of as parasitizing the latter relationship.

What family is this and what is the common name of this plant?
see Answer

VI12
According to the International 1/4 inch tree scale an 18 inch dbh white oak 2, 16' logs in merchantable height with a form class of 78 will yield 233 board feet of lumber. If I am point sampling using a BAF 15 prism and I count two of these trees on one sample plot, how many square feet of basal area per acre will they represent?
see Answer
VI13
Suppose I have a timber tract with 1,000,000 board feet of grade 2 trees worth an average of $150 per thousand board feet on the stump. Suppose that grade 1 timber is worth $250 per thousand board feet. Suppose I know that the average annual inflation rate over the next ten years will be 3%. Suppose that I know, due to the site quality of my land, that my timber will grow at an average rate of 5% increase in volume annually for the next ten years. Since my timber is hardwood timber such as oak and maple, suppose I also know that 5% of its volume will change from grade 2 to grade 1 each year as it matures due to the larger log sizes. Suppose I also know that if I invest my money in mutual funds in the stock market, I can expect to get a 10% return on investment annually for the next ten years. Should I sell my timber and invest the money in the stock market now? Explain why or why not.
see Answer
VI14
Timber stands can be improved by killing unwanted trees. One way to do this is by girdling, cutting a ring around the trunk of the selected tree. Why does this kill the tree and what must the girdle accomplish to be sure to kill the tree?
see Answer
VI15
        Tricholoma magnivelare
        Cantharellus formosus
        Boletus edulis
        Tuber gibbosum 
        Leucangium carthusiana
        Hydnum repandum
In what two ways are these significant in the forest?
see Answer
VI16
I went for a walk on my farm yesterday. Since it is fall and frost can be expected soon, I remembered that this is the traditional time in Kentucky to gather wild fruits and nuts. So I returned from my walk with the stuff pictured below.

(click on picture for a clearer picture 227k)
The products from woody plants have been circled and lettered, A-G. Please give the latin name of the genus of, at least, five of these seven items.
see Answer
VI17
A highly desired plant of deciduous woodlands in eastern North America, this species looks like this in late summer:

Common and scientific name please?
see Answer
VI18
Quarter sawn oak is more expensive than plain sawn oak. What do these two terms mean and what is the advantage of quarter sawing oak? What causes the "flecks" in quarter sawn oak flooring?
see Answer
VI19
What is a coppice stand?
see Answer
VII1
Below is a micro photograph of White Ash, a ring porous wood. The number "1" marks latewood. "2" marks earlywood. If the summer is rainy so that more latewood than usual grows and the ratio of latewood to earlywood increases what effect will this have on the specific gravity of the wood? Explain?


see Answer
VII2
I have 100 acres of northern red oak trees, Quercus rubra. The average circular spacing between trees is 37 feet. These trees when 50 years old were 70 feet tall. They have an average merchantable height of two 16 foot logs per tree. If these trees are 22 inches dbh and have a form class of 78 and if this grade of red oak is selling at the local sawmill for $600.00 per mbf, International 1/4 inch log scale and if the total cost of felling, skidding, bucking, loading and hauling to the mill is $100.00 per mbf., what is the total dollar value (to the nearest $1,000) on the stump of this tract of timber? Is this a good site for growing Quercus rubra?
According to Mesavage and Girard a Form Class 78, two log tree with a dbh of 22 inches contains 368 board feet International 1/4 inch log rule.
see Answer
VII3
This tree, native to the Appalachian mountains, Missouri, Oklahoma and Arkansas has very hard strong durable wood and is often used for fence posts. When the nectar of the flowers is harvested by bees it makes delicious light colored honey.

Please give the common and scientific names.
see Answer
VII4
Which of the following does not belong and why?
see Answer
VII5
This disease resulting in a canker or swollen area on the limbs or trunks of pine trees in the southern United States spreads to the pine trees by means of orange spores produced on infected oak leaves. What economically significant disease of southern pines and oaks is this?
see Answer
VII6
What is the scientific name of a bacteria (widely used as an insecticide) that kills leaf eating caterpillars such as eastern tent caterpillars?
see Answer
VII7
In the spring people search woodlands for these. What are they (genus name) and what is their attraction?


see Answer
VII8
In the midwestern United States a hopeless situation is described as "being in the center of a forty acre field and being charged by an enraged bull with only one tree available to climb and it being the one pictured below."

What is the common and scientific name of this member of the legume family?
see Answer
VII9
A hardwood log is graded based on the third best of four faces of the log. How are the locations of these faces determined?
see Answer
VIII1
What is the difference between a "clear cut" and a "high grade" timber harvest?
Which produces the most short term monetary profits?
In which type are more trees cut?
see Answer
VIII2
I cruise a tract of timber and take sample data at 60 plot locations. In the office later I find that the mean volume per acre is 3,000 board feet. I calculate the standard error of the mean for the 60 plots and find that it is 300. I then state that I can be 95% confident that the actual mean volume per acre is 3,000 board feet plus or minus 588 board feet. I calculated this 1/2 confidence interval of 588 board feet by multiplying 300 by 1.960. Where did I get the factor 1.960 and what is its meaning in terms of a normal distribution?
see Answer
VIII3
What are both the chemical and silvicultural differences between 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T? What impurity caused 2,4,5-T to be banned in the United States?
see Answer
VIII4
Which one of the following does not belong and why?
see Answer
VIII5
Which one of the following does not belong and why?
see Answer
VIII6
At Lake Tucurui in far northern Brazil they are cutting Brazilnut wood, mahogany, ipe, angelim, jatoba and massaranduba. Spread over 1,110 square miles the timber, worth at least $100 million, has been dead for fifteen years. The logging operation is unique. Why is the logging operation unique, what killed the timber and why is the timber still valuable after being dead for so long?
see Answer
VIII7
What is Anthracnose?
What is Annosus?
If I have a southern pine plantation which of these two would be of concern to me?
see Answer
VIII8
Peshtigo, Wisconsin was only about 240 miles north of Chicago on October 8, 1871. That night the great Chicago fire was started, it was said, by Mrs. O'Leary's cow. However, the Chicago fire was not the big news in Peshtigo the next day or, for that matter, during the entire month of October. Why not?
see Answer
VIII9
This summer the trees in my southern pine plantation began to die so that the stand looked like that in the photo below on the left. On closer examination I found sawdust at the bottom of the trees and pitch tubes as pictured in the photo on the right below on the trunks of the trees. What forest pest is killing these trees?


see Answer
VIII10
A forester may use the term "stratify" in two ways. If he is operating a nursery and he says he will stratify tree seed to enhance germination, what does he mean? (He might also say he will scarify tree seed to enhance germination. What does that mean?)
He may be involved in a timber cruise and he may say that he will stratify his data. Would the purpose of this be to: Explain.
see Answer
VIII11
This forester is looking through an instrument with 3 widths of field of view. They are marked 5, 10 and 20. What is the instrument called? For what is it used? What are the meanings of the numbers: 5, 10 and 20?


see Answer
VIII12
About 3600 pounds of hardwood, 128 cubic feet but actually only 65 to 90 cubic feet, probably around 80. What is it? Why the differing numbers of cubic foot volume?
see Answer
VIII13
What is the term for chemicals responsible for the astringent taste of unripe fruits and used in the process of transforming animal hides into leather. They are extracted with hot water from the bark of chestnut and oak.
see Answer
VIII14
What is the scientific name of the only five needled pine species native to the eastern part of North America? What does the term, "five needled pine", mean? (It doesn't mean that there are only five needles on the tree.)
see Answer
IX1 - unanswered
During a particularly dry fire season with a shortage of fire fighting personnel I saw this forest fire from a plane about 30 minutes after it had started at about 2 pm. I knew it would take me about two hours to land, get a fire crew to the fire and walk to the top of the mountain to begin constructing a fire line with hand tools to contain the fire. Which of the colored fire lines did I plan to construct? Discuss the disadvantages of the others.


see Answer
IX2
Concerning logging tools:
For what do we use a spud and a timbershave?
How is a peavey different than a canthook?
What do we call a canthook with a wooden or steel rocker installed at the lower end of the handle opposite the lip and what is the purpose of this?
see Answer
IX3
The bird below is a resident of Kentucky woodlands whose population is small and endangered. The insect pictured and enlarged at the right is about the size of a grain of rice. Why is it feared that the activities of this small insect may cause the extinction of the population of this bird in Kentucky? What species is the bird and the insect?


see Answer
IX4
The largest known living organism on earth lives in the western United States. What and where is it?
see Answer
IX5
I found this list of species of Virginia forest trees. They were in three groups. I removed the headings of each group. By what silvicultural characteristic where these species divided into these groups and what should be the heading on each group?
    sugar maple           red oak            black walnut                    
       beech             white oak           black cherry                    
     basswood            black oak           chestnut oak                    
     dogwood            white pine            scarlet oak                    
     hornbeam              ash               yellow poplar                   
     red spruce           hickory             sweetgum                       
    rhododendron         red maple           Virginia pine                   
                        sweet birch           pitch pine                     
                         sycamore         Table mountain pine                
                         sourwood             red cedar                      
                         blackgum            black locust                    
                         Fraser fir           sassafras                      

see Answer
IX6
This fast growing tree is an imported ornamental species in the United States. Escaped trees are sometimes found growing wild in forests in the eastern part of the country. What species is it?


see Answer
IX7
On a BAF 10 point sampling timber cruise each 20 inch dbh tree measured represents how many such trees per acre?
see Answer
IX8
What genus of Pinaceae is deciduous?
see Answer
IX9
This Tree of the mulberry family is unique in its method of growth. From its center, broad branches extend outward sprouting aerial roots that hang down. When they grow long enough to reach the ground, they take root and thicken, becoming wooden pillars. By spreading in this way, a single tree can become a forest.

What tree is this?
see Answer
IX10
Which one of the following does not belong and why?
  • Robinia pseudoacacia
  • Fagus grandifolia
  • Ginkgo biloba
  • Magnolia grandiflora
  • Juglans nigra
  • Morus alba
  • Acer rubrum
  • Larix decidua

see Answer
IX11
The lines A-B and A-C on the map below are exactly the same length. If I want to exercise to burn the maximum number of calories and I am standing at A, should I walk to B or to C?


see Answer
IX12
Below are two groups of plants:
   
        TREES                ANNUALS AND PERENNIALS

        Serviceberry         Red clover
        Red Bud              Vetch
        Apple                Strawberry
        Honey Locust         Rose
        Black Cherry         Soy bean
They are grouped based on form of the plant (tree/non tree). Please put these plants in two groups of five on a different basis and explain your reasoning.
see Answer
IX13
Why have most of the dogwood trees in the Great Smokey Mountains National Park died in the last few years?
see Answer
IX14
Which one of the following does not belong and why?
see Answer
IX15
If I tell you that my forest consists mainly of Archaeopteris spp., what do you know about me?
see Answer
IX16
I was asked to cruise a timber tract in which the client did not have a good deed description. He was able to furnish me deed calls for his land obtained from deeds of adjoining landowners. Unfortunately, these calls were from different surveys done by various surveyors in various time periods. Therefore, I had to do some conversions. Here is the description he furnished me:
Beginning at a white oak beside a spring thence 203 degrees 
azimuth 10 chains to a stake, thence North 67 degrees West 20 
rods to a cedar, thence turning a clockwise 270 degree angle and 
proceeding 80 poles to a rock, thence 113 degrees azimuth 330 
feet to a fence post near where the brown cow stood, thence to 
the beginning. 
It will be noted that the distance and direction of the last deed call are not given. What is this distance and direction and how many acres in area is this tract of land?
see Answer
IX17
While gathering firewood for a campfire one night I happened upon an old tree stump that glowed in the dark with an eerie pale bluish green light.
I added a piece of it to my load of firewood and when burned on the fire the flames turned a strange color.
What caused this?
see Answer
IX18
What are sclerenchyma cells and why are they important to trees?
see Answer
X1
What tree is this?

Scientific name please.
see Answer
X2
What tree, native to forests in the eastern United States, is this?
        Leaves broad - not needle-like or scale-like
        Leaves simple - not compound with several leaflets
        Leaves opposite on the branch not alternately placed
        Leaves entire - not lobed
        Leaves oval shaped - not heart shaped
        Fruit - a shiny oval red drupe.

see Answer
X3
As I am walking in a forest in the Appalachian mountains I see around me trees that are mostly scarlet oak, chestnut oak, hickory, and pine. As I continue walking I notice that the forest type has changed and I now see yellow poplar, beech, hemlock and maple. Have I been walking uphill or downhill? How do you know?
see Answer
X4
Which one of the following does not belong and why?
  1. Allium tricoccum
  2. Datura stramonium
  3. Polygonatum biflorum
  4. Cypripedium acaule
  5. Viola rostrata
  6. Mitchella repens
  7. Asarum arifolium
  8. Panax quinquefolium

see Answer
X5
A recent timber cruise in the Appalachian mountains of Kentucky of a forest consisting mostly of oaks, yellow poplar, hard maple and hickory trees showed about 50 trees per acre more than 12 inches in diameter breast high with an average of 200 board feet doyle scale per tree and an average of 92 square feet of basal area per acre. Since the state Division of Forestry recommends planting 800 to 1000 trees per acre and this stand only supported 50 sawlog size trees per acre, a local farmer said that the stand, as I described it to him, didn't seem to be very well stocked with trees. He was wrong. Please put the numbers above into perspective by explaining what numbers would be expected on an average stand and on a well stocked stand of this type and why there is such a discrepancy in number of trees per acre planted and number harvested.
see Answer
X6


see Answer
X7
What tree genus, native to forests in the eastern United States, is this?
        Leaves broad - not needle-like or scale-like
        Leaves compound with several leaflets - not simple
        Leaves opposite on the branch not alternately placed
        Leaves palmately compound not pinnately compound

see Answer
X8
A forester from Europe visiting me in the American midwest asked me, as we looked over a forest tract, the size of the tract. I told her it was a section. She was not able to understand this unit of measurement until she had mentally converted it to hectares. How many hectares would this section contain?
It may be helpful for you to know that:
one inch = 2.54 centimeters.
one hectare is one hectometer squared.
a section is 80 gunther's chains squared.
see Answer
X9
A common recommendation for planting tree seedings is to plant 1,000 seedlings per acre at a 6 foot by 7 foot spacing (trees 6 feet apart in rows 7 feet apart). If I have a bundle containing exactly 1,000 tree seedings and I measure carefully to space the trees 6 X 7 feet, will I be able to plant my entire acre or will I have tree seedlings left over? I will be short or over by how many seedlings? How many seedlings will I require per acre if I decide to instead plant the trees at an 8' X 8' spacing?
see Answer
XI1
Where do you think this forest fire originated? Why?


see Answer
XI2
Which one of the following does not belong and why?
  1. Allegheny
  2. Cherokee
  3. Adirondack
  4. Monongahela
  5. Daniel Boone
  6. Mark Twain
  7. Hiawatha
  8. Jefferson
  9. Black Hills
  10. Klamath
  11. Fishlake
  12. Lewis and Clark

see Answer
XI3
What tree is this?


see Answer
XI4
What tree is this?

Imported from:   Eastern Asia, 1907.

Distribution: Eastern United States and Western Australia.

Description: Deciduous.
        3 to 14m high (can reach 20m)
        Freely suckers, deep taproot. Disturbance of roots encourages massive regeneration of new suckers.
        Leaves consist of up to 20 pairs of leaflets (opposite each other).
        Flowers are green-white, fruit red/yellow/green colour.
        Leaf extracts contain allelopathic substances which restrict the growth of other plants. For this reason, the trees are often found in thick stands with no discernible competition.
        Contact with plant at flowering time (late Summer to Autumn) causes dermatits.
        Leaves and flowers have an unpleasant odor.

see Answer
XI5
I have a stereo pair of aerial photographs of a level wooded area. I understand that the focal length of the lens in the aerial camera is 12 inches. I measure the distance on the ground between two road intersections shown in the photo and find it to be 1600 feet and then I measure the same distance as shown in the aerial photo and find it to be 4.8 inches. I measure the distance on one of the photos between the center of that photo and the image on that photo of the point at the center of the other photo of the stereoscopic pair and find it is 2.550 inches. Using a parallax wedge on the stereo pair I find that the differential between the absolute stereoscopic parallax at ground level and that at the top of a specific tree in the photos is .058 inches. What is the estimated height of the tree?
see Answer
XI6
You must decide whether to hire a fire lookout for the summer on a National Forest. His salary and per diem allowance will cost $1,000. Your decision will be based on the probability of a severe summer fire on the forest. Set up a two way table of possible outcomes and calculate the mathematical expectation of gains or losses from the following data. Then calculate the combined expectation of loss if he is hired and the expectation of loss if he is not hired.
  1. If no severe fires occur and a lookout is not hired, you will save his salary of $1,000.
  2. If no severe fires occur and a lookout is hired, you will lose $800 (assuming the lookout will do about $200 worth of trail improvement work.)
  3. If a severe fire occurs and a lookout is not hired, you will lose $3,000.
  4. If a severe fire occurs and a lookout is hired, you will lose $1,200.
  5. The probability of a severe fire is 0.60.

see Answer
XI7
What do these plants have in common?
see Answer
XI8
In a BAF 10 point sampling timber cruise I have measured between 300 and 400 trees on 60 sample plots. Putting these measurements into my forest analysis computer program, I have now created a stand and stock table for the sampled forest which reports number of trees, timber volume and timber value by 1 inch diameter class. If my task is to estimate volumes and values of timber at a time in the past when the trees were two inches smaller in diameter than now, should I simply reduce the diameter of each measured tree by two inches and run the trees through the program again or should I take the number of trees in each diameter class in the stand and stock table and move that number down two inches in the table applying the average volume and value for the new class to the new number of trees now in that diameter class? One of these methods is much more valid than the other. Why? Assume that timber prices are constant during the period.
see Answer
XI9
What do these products have in common?
see Answer
XII1
What is the significance of each of these trees?
see Answer
XII2
What one word is brought to mind by these trees?
see Answer
XII3
What is a "witches'-broom"? What is a gall? What is cecidology?
see Answer
XII4
Foresters in surveying a tract of land sometimes use a table listing the position of one or more celestial bodies for each day of the year. The French publication, Connaissance de Temps, founded in 1679, is the oldest of such published tables. What do we call such a table? Why do surveyors sometimes need such information?
see Answer
XII5
In War of the Minds, battle 3, a long time ago, the answer to a question was Kentucky Coffee Tree. Our web visitor who answered this question included in his answer some discussion of the scientific name of the tree:
Actually, I've seen it listed as G. dioica and G. dioicus -- which makes 
a sort of twisted sense, since the tree is "dioecious" (meaning it has male
and female individuals) and dioeca and dioecus would be the male and female
forms of the same word, in Latin. But I don't think that botanical Linnaean
binomial taxonomy works that way. Either a (contemporary) Somebody screwed
up or a (historic) Somebody couldn't make up their mind. I used 'dioica'
because  the names I've seen for other plants seem to favor the feminine
dioecious name (Urtica dioica = stinging nettle; Silene diocia = red
campion; Bryonia dioica =  white bryony; and many others) 
A recent visitor to our pages emailed us to give the correct scientific name and the reason based on Latin usage that it is correct. Please see if you can also give us this answer.
see Answer
XII6
I can download from the internet a Digital Elevation Model before cruising a timber stand or mapping a forest area.
What is a DEM? Where would I get it?
How would I use it?
see Answer
XII7
A forest manager decided to set up a continuous forest inventory system in which permanent plots are resampled on a periodic basis, such as every five years, to give ongoing reports on the status of the forest. He planned 250 permanent plots on a 60,000 acre forest. He said that the plots should be conspicuously marked on the ground so that they could easily be found for each periodic forest inventory. A mensurationist suggested to him that marking the plots in such as way was probably not such a good idea. Why not?
see Answer
XII8

Carotene (the pigment found in carrots and corn) causes maples, birches, and poplars to turn yellow. The brilliant reds and oranges in this fall landscape are due to anthocyanins. Tannins give the oak a distinctively brown color and is the final persistent color most leaves turn before becoming part of the forest floor. Why do we see these colors in tree leaves only in the autumn?
see Answer
XIII1
This rare tree of the legume family is native to Kentucky, Tennessee and part of Missouri. The heartwood of this tree is a striking yellow color. What tree is it? (Scientific name please.)


see Answer
XIII2
Pycnidia, apothecia, mycelium. To what am I referring?
see Answer
XIII3
Specifically, what are these?
see Answer
XIII4
Some of the following do not belong here.
Which do not belong and why?
see Answer
XIII5
The cambium is between the xylem and the phloem. Further describe these three types of cells and their functional purpose. If I say, "Xylem up and phloem down", of what processes am I reminding myself?
see Answer
XIII6
Which one of the list below does not belong and why?
see Answer
XIII7
Of these Appalachian hardwood tree species: Which cannot reproduce and survive under a closed forest canopy?
see Answer
XIII8
When hardwood is sliced into veneer sheets for use in furniture and door surfaces, etc. the sheets are carefully kept in the order that they came from the log. Why is this order important?
see Answer
XIII9
What are these?
see Answer
XIII10
A virginia creeper vine has climbed up and around to the top of a cylindrical pine tree trunk in a helical manner. The tree trunk has a height of 375 inches and a circumference of 40 inches. If the creeper covers a vertical distance of 75 inches in one complete twist around the tree trunk, what is the total length of the creeper?
see Answer
XIII11
I have decided to sell some of the hardwood timber from my woodland. To decide where I can get the best price I decide to check prices at nearby sawmills. Mr. Jones at a sawmill about ten miles from my woodland says, after I have described the timber to him, that he can probably pay me an average of $300 per thousand board feet. I then continue on down the road another five miles to Mr. Smith's sawmill. He says he can pay me $275 per thousand board feet.
"Sorry", I say, "But Mr. Jones is willing to give me $300 per thousand."
"Yes," says Mr. Smith, "but Jones has a 1/4 inch kerf circular saw and buys on doyle log scale. I, however, have a 1/8 inch band saw and buy on international 1/8 inch log scale, so you should sell to me."
What is Mr. Smith talking about? Where will I get the best price for my logs?
see Answer
XIV1
Below are pictures of examples of three species of snakes that might be found in forests on the east coast of North America. Which of these is poisonous? What species is it? How does one distinguish that species from the others?


see Answer
XIV2
I live in the United States.
Five of the following six tree species are native where I live: Which one is not?
Do I reside in New York, Kentucky, Georgia, Nebraska, Texas or California?
How do you know?
see Answer
XV1
Walking in the forest I see mahogany, ipe, angelim, jatoba and massaranduba.
Where am I?
see Answer
XV2
I am a broad leaved tree. I do not have needles or scales.
My leaves are simple not compound.
My leaves are serrated not lobed.
My leaves are doubly toothed around the margins of the leaf (doubly serrate) and asymmetrical at the base.
My leaves appear alternately on the stem, not opposite each other.
I have a dry, 1-seeded fruit with a wing.
I appear throughout Eastern North America.
What am I?
see Answer
XV3
This is the fruit of what tree?


see Answer
XV4
Please list the numbers 1 through 4 on the topographic map fragment below in order from lowest to highest in elevation.


see Answer
XV5
What tree is this? Scientific name please.


see Answer
XV6
My GPS tells me that my home is North 36 degrees 42.461 minutes and West 85 degrees 05.430 minutes at 951 feet elevation. I am deep in the woods at Jack's Knob. The GPS says it is North 36 degrees 44.271 minutes and West 85 degrees 05.414 minutes at 1580 feet elevation. If the batteries give out on my GPS and I have to navigate my way home by compass, how far will I have to go in what direction?
see Answer
XV7
What species, utilized by golfers, is this?
see Answer
XV8
What species of forests and fields in eastern United States is this? Common and scientific name please:
see Answer
XV10
What is the most obvious missing name from this list:
see Answer
XV11
The trees below are divided into two groups. What is the basis for this division?
 Quercus macrocarpa       Quercus virginiana
 Magnolia soulangiana     Magnolia grandiflora
 Gingko biloba            Pseudotsuga menziesii
 Larix laricina           Pinus ponderosa 
 Ilex verticillatta       Ilex opaca

see Answer
XV12
The lamp below was used for years by forest fire fighters fighting fires at night. It does not require batteries and it is useful in setting backfires. What kind of lamp is it and how does it work?


see Answer

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