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War of the Minds - Philosophy and Science Questions

This author of "The Spy Who Spoke Porpoise", "They Both Were Naked", and "Generation of Vipers" wrote in his "Essay on Morals" that the steps that lead to Carl Jung's hypothesis and the hypothesis itself are:
  1. Man is an animal.
  2. Animals, including man, are governed by instinct.
  3. Hypothesis: Instinct has taken form in man as legend.
  4. Theory of the Law of Opposites which governs instinctual activity: compensation, complement and conservation operate subjectively just as they do in the objective world.
Who was this author?
A philosopher and anthropologist, he was born in 1907 and wrote "The Immense Journey", a book of essays of biological philosophy. Who was this Nebraskan?
What is the difference between predestination and predetermination?
What is the subject of "Summerhill" by A. S. Neill?
After relativity he searched for the Unified Field Theory. Who was he? For what was he searching? What would be its philosophical significance?
Late 19th and early 20th century American philosopher and perhaps the greatest single force in re-shaping our conception of education, his best known work was Human Nature and Conduct.
What is Chaos Theory and how does it apply to philosophy?
One of the newest branches of Philosophy involves the study of beauty. What is this branch called?
Who wrote "The Conscience of a Conservative"? How was he linked to Miller?
"Nothing is worthwhile; everything is futile. For what does a man get for all his hard work?

Generations come and go but it makes no difference. The sun rises and sets and hurries around to rise again. The wind blows south and north, here and there, twisting back and forth, getting nowhere. The rivers run into the sea but the sea is never full, and the water returns again to the rivers and flows again to the sea... everything is unutterably weary and tiresome. No matter how much we see, we are never satisfied; no matter how much we hear we are not content.

History merely repeats itself. Nothing is truly new; it has all been done and said before. What can you point to that is new? How do you know it didn't exist long ages ago? We don't remember what happened in those former times, and in the future generations no one will remember what we have done back here. "

Where do we read these words? Who is thought to have written them?


Today while the blossoms
still cling to the vine
I'll taste your strawberries
and drink your sweet wine.
A million tomorrows shall all pass away
Ere I forget all the joys that are mine

When walking, just walk,
When sitting, just sit,
Above all, don't wobble.

Sitting quietly, doing nothing,
Spring comes, and the grass grows by itself.

He who knows does not say.
He who says does not know.

While he was minding his own business as he lived in Uz they argued about his faith. As a result of the argument this just and innocent man lost his seven sons, his three daughters, his wealth and property, and became afflicted with terrible diseases. Who were they? Who was he? Where do we read of his afflictions? This story is a comment on the extent to which man is at the mercy of a universe beyond his control and his attitude toward this situation.
Pupil of Plato and tutor of Alexander the Great?
The author of "Utopia" was beheaded because he refused to deny his allegiance to the Pope. Who was this author and what was the subject of his book which was considered the first of a particular type of books?
What is the study of the nature of knowledge with reference to its limits and validity called?
"What is the meaning of Life?" as a philosophical question is similar to the legal question, "When did you stop beating your wife?". How so?
"What is the sound of one hand clapping?" is a koan from what religious philosophy?
What economic philosopher wrote "The Wealth of Nations"?
His thoughts on the duty of civil disobedience inspired Gandhi. He was jailed because he refused to pay his taxes. He built a house and planted a bean field on the shores of Walden pond. Who was he?
He was enlightened as he sat on "the immovable spot" under the Bo tree. Who was he?
What existentialist wrote "The Myth of Sisyphus"?
Canaan, son of Ham, and all his descendants were cursed. By whom and for what reason?
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Born in Italy in 1548, he first became a Dominican priest, later a writer and philosopher. He wrote of an infinite universe and could not conceive that God and nature could be separate and distinct entities as taught by Genesis, as taught by the Church and even as taught by Aristotle. Eventually he was burned alive by the Catholic church for teaching that Copernicus was right and Earth was not the center of the Universe. Who was this little known martyr?
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What was the crime of Onan?
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In 1885, a serious epidemic of smallpox broke out in Montreal Canada. Few Protestants died, but the Roman Catholic parishioners died in great numbers. Why was the epidemic so much more deadly to Roman Catholics?
In the late summer of 1960 he accepted an appointment as research professor in the Center for Personality Study at Harvard. On his way from Berkeley to Harvard he took a side trip into Mexico. His experience there together with his reading of Aldous Huxley's "The Doors of Perception" and his subsequent association with Richard Alpert changed his outlook on life and made him one of the most controversial figures of the last half of the twentieth century. Who was he and what happened to him in Mexico?
Author of "The Social Contract"?
A professor of psychology at Harvard in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, he wrote "Principles of Psychology" and "Varieties of Religious Experience". Who was he?
If he had said, "I think not.", he might have promptly disappeared. Who was he?
He tried to grok the fullness of Life and God with his water brothers. They included Jubal Harshaw, Ben Caxton, and Gillian Boardman. Who was this character, in what book, written by what author? It raised many questions about humans and their social, political and religious customs and beliefs.
In the year 632 A. F. (After Ford) the World State's motto was "Community, Identity, Stability". Bokanovsky's Process enabled up to Ninety-six identical twins to be created from one fertilized egg. This was one of the major instruments of social stability because diversity obviously has a destabilizing effect on society.
Imagine the folly of allowing children to play games that require nothing more than a few sticks, a ball or two and perhaps a bit of netting when they could so easily be conditioned to play games which require elaborate and expensive apparatus and thus increase consumption.
The author of the novel containing these ideas felt that it was quite possibly true that humans were given free will in order to choose between insanity on the one hand and lunacy on the other. Name this writer/philosopher?
"You are a child of the universe no less than the trees and the stars. You have a right to be here. And whether it is clear to you or not, no doubt the universe is unfolding as it should."
It was originally written in 1927. Who was the writer and what was the title of the larger work from which this excerpt is taken?
A 16th century political philosopher, he said that the three good types of government are a principality, an aristocracy, and a democracy. But, he continued, they easily turn into a tyranny, an oligarchy, and anarchy respectively. Who was this guy?
Who was the prosecuting attorney in the Scopes monkey trial? Where did it take place and in what year? Who was the defending attorney?
John Ed Pearce was said by the editor of a major newspaper to be the newspaper's "best writer - ever". What newspaper? Is Mr. Pearce's political philosophy considered to be liberal or conservative?
We live in a universe of three dimensional space and one dimension of time. Why not two dimensions or four or some other combination? Why do we remember the past and not the future? Why does entrophy increase rather than decrease? One way of answering these questions is to invoke the anthropic principal. How does this provide an answer?
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Two principles necessary for the existence of the universe as scientists now perceive it, Heisenburg's Uncertainty Principle and Pauli's Exclusion Principle, call into serious question any deterministic view of the Universe and may even mean that there is no point which can be determined as the instant of the "Big Bang" or that such a point may not be a valid concept. How does this impact on philosophers' conception of the nature of or definition of God?
It is realized that this question is somewhat subjective. A correct answer will be considered to be any answer that demonstrates an understanding of the two principles mentioned and the relationship between cosmology and religious philosophy.
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How is Sagan's "assumption of mediocrity" the antithesis of the egocentric view of man held by many and how does this assumption help to justify Project Phoenix?
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His writings influenced Darwin, in writing "Origin of Species". Many people think his message concerned the inevitability of over population. Actually, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, he wrote about adverse effects on population brought on by increasing population; war, starvation, infertility, disease. In other words, although he did not use the terms, he discussed carrying capacities and feedback mechanisms. Who was this student of population increase and food supply?
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"Our planet - Mother Earth - is a living being and all life forms are her offspring." What is the name given this hypothesis and who originally proposed it in its modern manifestation?
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What futurist wrote "Future Shock", "The Third Wave" and "Powershift"?
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Not exactly a sequel to Thoreau's book, this fictional vision of a modern utopia was written in 1948. Who was the psychologist author, famous for his box, and what is the title of the book?
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Explain the concepts of wu-wei and yang yin. With what religion, person and book are they associated?
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What is the name for a philosophy that asserts that the spiritual rather than the material is the fundamental reality? It is an idealist philosophy as opposed to the empiricists. It is associated with Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau.
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What was the punishment of Sisyphus? According to Camus what philosophy enabled Sisyphus to come to terms with his punishment?
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Born in 1912, he was one of the first to raise the concept of artificial intelligence. He believed that machines could exhibit (not just mimic) intelligence. He also believed that biological form was simply a logical result of chemical and physical processes. He applied the concept of the algorithm to digital computers. Who was this mathematician, computer pioneer, and philosopher?
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In an ancient city whose lighthouse was one of the wonders of the world at that time was probably the world's greatest library containing over 400,000 scrolls, copies of all the books known in the world. Now that library and the entire center of learning built around it are gone and no one knows where, when or why. What city was this, named for the great conqueror who built it?
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To explain and popularize science in a world given to superstition, he wrote one of the first books of science fiction. It was called the "Somnium", "The Dream", and was about a journey to the moon. Science fiction was such a new idea at the time that the book was used as evidence that the author's mother was a witch. Who was this early scientist?
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Many Jewish families in the past protected newborn children by providing an amulet above their bed. On the amulet were the names of three angels. What were these names and from what evil were the babies thus protected?
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Sand paintings are used by a singer in a blessing ceremony to restore balance and harmony (hozho). By what people?
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The Davidsbündler were a conservative bunch. Who were they and what were they conservative about?
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Teleological ethics teaches that we should act so as to maximize the greatest future good and the least future harm. This raises the question of whether we mean personal or collective good or harm. By this school of ethics it would be right to murder Jack the Ripper in his infancy because, by doing so, numerous murders could be prevented.

This late eighteenth century philosopher would disagree saying that the categorical imperative forbids any murder and that the ends cannot be used to justify immoral means.

Who was this thinker, proponent of deontological ethics, and professor at the University of Konigsberg?
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"My message is the practice of compassion, love, and kindness. Compassion can be put into practice if one recognizes the fact that every human being is a member of humanity and the human family regardless of differences in religion, culture, color, and creed. Deep down there is no difference.

We should try never to let our happy frame of mind be disturbed. Whether we are suffering at present or have suffered in the past, there is no reason to be unhappy. If we can remedy it, why be unhappy? And if we cannot, what use is there in being depressed about it? That just adds more unhappiness and does no good at all.

By developing a sense of respect for others and a concern for their welfare, we reduce our own selfishness, which is the source of all problems, and enhance our sense of kindness which is a natural source of goodness."

Tenzin Gyatso

Who is this man? What is his full title? Where is his homeland?
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This philosopher and traveller from the fifth century B.C. claimed that the universe was a purely mechanical system obeying fixed laws. He explained the origin of the universe through atoms moving randomly and colliding to form larger bodies and worlds. He also believed that space is infinite having always existed and that the number of atoms are infinite. His philosophy contains an early form of the conservation of energy. Who was this early thinker?
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Searle's "Chinese Room" argument concerns what philosophical question?
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Name the work and the author.
        So live, that when thy summons comes to join
        The innumerable caravan, which moves
        To that mysterious realm where each shall take 
        His chamber in the silent halls of death, 
        Thou go not, like the quarry slave at night,
        Scourged to his dungeon, but, sustained and soothed 
        By an unfaltering trust, approach thy grave,
        Like one who wraps the drapery of his couch
        About him, and lies down to pleasant dreams.

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This English philosopher, jailed twice for his anti-war and disarmament views, won the Nobel prize for literature and wrote "A History of Western Philosophy". He died in 1970 at the age of 97. Who was he?
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This early 19th century German philosopher saw history as a working out of God's plan. Individual humans - especially the great heroes of world history - are the principal means of change, while peoples and states are the embodiment of each phase. He saw Great Men as the only real agents of history. He believed that individual welfare or suffering simply did not matter in the sweep of world history, advancing like a juggernaut over the corpses of individuals. Who was this man, influential in German thought and in the development of pantheism?
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For I have learned
To look on nature, not as in the hour
Of thoughtless youth, but hearing oftentimes
The still, sad music of humanity,
Not harsh or grating, though of ample power
To chasten and subdue. And I have felt
A presence that disturbs me with the joy
Of elevated thoughts; a sense sublime
Of something far more deeply interfused,
Whose dwelling is the light of setting suns,
And the round ocean, and the living air,
And the blue sky, and in the mind of man,
A motion and a spirit, that impels
All thinking things, all objects of all thought,
And rolls through all things. Therefore am I still
A lover of the meadows and the woods,
And mountains; and of all that we behold
From this green earth; of all the mighty world
Of eye and ear, both what they half-create,
And what perceive; well pleased to recognize
In nature and the language of the sense,
The anchor of my purest thoughts, the nurse,
The guide, the guardian of my heart, and soul
Of all my moral being.

Who is this poet who finds God in nature and in what poem does he thus tell us of his feelings?
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When he was on the island of Patmos he was given a message to deliver to the seven churches in Asia. He wrote down what he saw and was told. Who was he and what was the name of the book that he wrote? It described the breaking of the seven seals and foretold of things to come.
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This Dominican Saint and Scholastic incorporated reason into theology with a philosophy holding that faith and reason constitute two harmonious realms; theology and science cannot contradict each other. Who was this 13th century theologian?
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Two positions in the philosophy of mind are:
  1. Mental states and brain activities are identical. Mind is essentially material in nature.
  2. Minds and mental events are made of a spiritual substance which is distinct from one's material body.
What terms do philosophers use to name each of these positions?
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What 17th century Irish satiric writer wrote the proposal below?
What social problem was he satirizing?
      I have been assured by a very knowing American of my 
      acquaintance in London, that a young healthy child well 
      nursed is at a year old a most delicious, nourishing, and 
      wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked, or boiled; 
      and I make no doubt that it will equally serve in a 
      fricassee or a ragout. 
      I do therefore humbly offer it to public consideration that 
      of the hundred and twenty thousand children already 
      computed, twenty thousand may be reserved for breed, whereof 
      only one-fourth part to be males; which is more than we 
      allow to sheep, black cattle or swine; and my reason is, 
      that these children are seldom the fruits of marriage, a 
      circumstance not much regarded by our savages, therefore one 
      male will be sufficient to serve four females. That the 
      remaining hundred thousand may, at a year old, be offered in 
      the sale to the persons of quality and fortune through the 
      kingdom; always advising the mother to let them suck 
      plentifully in the last month, so as to render them plump 
      and fat for a good table. A child will make two dishes at an 
      entertainment for friends; and when the family dines alone, 
      the fore or hind quarter will make a reasonable dish, and 
      seasoned with a little pepper or salt will be very good 
      boiled on the fourth day, especially in winter. 

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"I believe in Spinoza's God who reveals Himself in the orderly harmony of what exists, not in a God who concerns himself with fates and actions of human beings."
This is a quote from what famous scientist?
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Belief that god is present in all of nature, rather than transcending it.

Belief that God is the universe and the universe is God or, more generally, that the universe is divine.

Doctrine that identifies God with the whole universe, every particle, tree, table, animal, and person being part of Him.

Doctrine that God is the transcendent reality of which the material universe and human beings are only manifestations: it involves a denial of God's personality and expresses a tendency to identify God and nature.

Tenents of this belief were expressed in some manner by:
Fichte, Schelling, Hegel, Schleiermacher, Spinoza, Giordano Bruno, Eckhart, Boehme, Erigena, Xenophanes, John Toland, Rousseau, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Goethe, Tennyson, Whitman, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Friedrich Nietzsche, Ernst Haeckel, Zen Buddhists, North American Indians, Neoplatonists, Stoics , Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Heraklitus, Zeno of Cittium, Marcus Aurelius, and Plotinus.

What is the name of this belief?
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"Under a government which imprisons any unjustly, the true place for a just man is also a prison."
"I ... do not wish to be regarded as a member of any incorporated society which I have not joined."
"If I had known how to name them, I should then have signed off in detail from all the societies which I had never signed on to; but I did not know where to find a complete list."
"I was put into a jail once ... for one night; and, as I stood considering the walls of solid stone, two or three feet thick, the door of wood and iron, a foot thick, and the iron grating which strained the light, I could not help being struck with the foolishness of that institution which treated me as if I were mere flesh and bones, to be locked up."
He argued that it is a man's duty to disobey unjust laws and that if even one man will do so consistently and pay the consequences that will be the beginning of the end of those laws.
Name the well known essay and the philosopher.
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In contemporary society the Rachels vs. Sullivan debate concerns what moral question today much in the news due to the actions of whom?
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In the 1960's this playwright argued in a book that wars and aggressive behavior were manifestations of a killing instinct evolved as men became successful carnivores (hunters). He then wrote two other popular books about territoriality and social behavior. Who was this author and what were the names of his three books?
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All-Father created the huge world ash tree whose tree branches support the earth. It has three roots, the spiritual, the terrestrial, and the infernal. It is watered by the Urdar fountain, Mimir's well, and the spring, Hvergelmir. What is the name of this tree?
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In 451-450 B.C. the law of the Twelve Tables was published. This brought to this people the same political tool that had first been used in Babylon in the time of Hammurabi about 1500 years before. Who were these people and what political system leading to what great empire were they developing? What was this political tool?
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Which of the following does not belong and why?
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When Susanna, wife of Joakim, took off her clothing to bathe in the pool in the garden, she was accosted by two elders. When she refused their advances they accused her of adultery. As she was about to be put to death for this crime, Daniel was able to prove her innocence. How did he do this? Where do we read this story?
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Branch of Buddhism that stresses immediacy without abstraction? _ _ _
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What is this? What is its meaning? With what religion is it mainly associated?

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When did the world split for Schrödinger's Cat? How does the concept of such world splits relate to Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle?
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In the late nineteenth century this philosopher/writer wrote the phrase, "God is Dead". For the next century speakers and writers argued over the meaning and the truth of the phrase. Who was this famous thinker?
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Name the author.
            He has achieved success who has
                           lived well,
                         laughed often
                        and loved much;
           who has enjoyed the trust of pure women,
                 the respect of intelligent men
                  and the love of little children;
                    who has filled his niche 
                   and accomplished his task;
         who has left the world better than he found it,
                whether by an improved poppy,
                        a perfect poem,
                       or a rescued soul;
      who has never lacked appreciation of earth's beauty
                    nor failed to express it;
         who has always looked for the best in others
                and given them the best he had;
                 whose life was an inspiration;
                whose memory is a benediction. 

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Which one of the following does not belong and why?
  1. George Berkeley
  2. Denis Diderot
  3. Jonathan Edwards
  4. Mary Baker Eddy
  5. David Hume
  6. Immanuel Kant
  7. John Wesley
  8. Emanuel Swedenborg

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Who's this guy?
And what is his philosophical significance?
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He said Sunday, October 23, 4004 B.C. is a significant date. Who was he and why was that date significant?
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Describe the "prisoner's dilemmna".
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I placed sacred things in the Cave of Treasures on the mountain, Ramiah, near the plain, Olaha Shinehah. Who am I and where can you read this story?
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The quote below is from the "Cowboy Philosopher":
      You know, we haven't got any business in those faraway wars. 
      Seven thousand miles is a long way to go to shoot somebody, 
      especially if you are not right sure they need shooting, and 
      you are not sure whether you are shooting the right side or 
      not. You see, it's their war and they have a right to fight 
      it as they see fit, without any advice from us. 
Who was this American icon?
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If I am a Luddite will I be likely to use a computer to send and receive email? Why or why not?
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One example of the time travel paradox is that if I went back in time to the time before my grandfather had any children and caused something to happen which resulted in his death, then I would not have been born to go back in time and cause his death. Why is this paradox not a problem for those who propose a "many worlds" universe?
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In the largest mass execution in American history 38 men were hanged in one day. Over three hundred had been condemned to hang in 393 trials held in only a six week period. The condemned were tried and sentenced to death without the benefit of counsel. When and where did this occur and who were the condemned? What legal argument was used to justify denying legal representation to the defendents?
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For over 40 years Dr. Thomas Harvey kept a remarkable thing behind a cooler in his office. Then Dr. Sandra Witelson at McMaster got a chance to study it. What was it and what did she discover about it?
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Thecla was betrothed to Thamyris. She did not marry him because she listened to the teachings of a man of a small stature with meeting eyebrows, bald [or shaved] head, bow-legged, strongly built, hollow-eyed, with a large crooked nose. Because she followed this man Thecla was ordered to be burned, thrown naked to wild beasts, threatened with rape, and rejected by her mother.
Who was this man that she followed and what did he teach?
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Confucius' sayings? (8 letters)
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Coyote, Loki, Orisha, Nasreddin Hodja, Yurugy, Anansi, Hermes?
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What moral question is raised by these ranches and counties in the western United States:
Lyon, Chicken, Mineral, Mustang, Churchill, Sagebrush, Esmeralda?
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This late 18th century and early 19th century French botanist and zoologist is best known for his study of invertebrates. He explained nature as being controlled by three biological laws: environmental influence on organ development, change in body structure based on use and disuse of parts, and inheritance of acquired characteristics. Who was he and what field of biological science begun in 1900 and built on the work of an Austrian monk eventually replaced his idea of inheritance of acquired characteristics?
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Lake Vostok is about the same size as Lake Ontario. No one ever goes boating there. Why not?
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This dinosaur lived during the Jurassic Period. Please identify it.

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Thomas Edison, after he had invented the electric light bulb, looked for ways to prolong the life of the filament. One thing he tried was to seal a metal wire into the evacuated bulb near the filament but not touching it. This didn't preserve the life of the filament but Edison noticed that an electric current seemed to flow from the filament to the wire across the vacuum gap. Although Edison could find no use for this knowledge he patented it in 1884 and called it the "Edison effect."

In 1904 an electrical engineer who had worked with Edison made use of the "Edison effect" and of the developing electron theory to devise an evacuated glass bulb with a filament and wire which would let current pass through in one direction and not in the other.

In 1906 an American inventor modified this device by introducing a metal plate which allowed it to amplify electric current as well as rectify it. This invention became the basis for many modern electronic devices and changed the world. What was this invention called and how was it used and who was the American Inventor?
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How many electrons are normally in the outermost electron shell of the Alkaline Earth Metals? Name the Alkaline Earth Metals.
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Explain why the Second Law of Thermodynamics has been called "Time's Arrow". What is the Second Law of Thermodynamics and how is it related to entropy? Due to the Second Law of Thermodynamics homeostasis requires the expenditure of energy. Since Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity applies when spacetime is flat, will the Second Law of Thermodynamics not apply across a curved spacetime continuum? (This requires some speculation.)
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What is the difference in the length of a sidereal day and the length of a solar day and why does this difference occur?
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What is "Deep Ecology" as opposed to shallow or anthropocentric ecology?
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Where is the easternmost point in the United States and why might one consider this a trick question?
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If the total world supply of water were poured upon the land surface of the 50 states of the United States, to what average depth would the land surface be submerged?
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What type of animals are described below? (class name)
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How long is the coastline of Britain?
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It's like a twisted ladder with rungs made of four materials. It's like a zipper. It contains coded sequences separated by "junk". What is it?
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If I have a headache, acne, warts, or psoriasis I might look for a willow tree. Why?
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The first successful measurement of the speed of light was done a hundred years before the American revolution. Who measured it and how was this accomplished?
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This genus contains trees of myth and of religious significance in England and it contains shrubs in North America. It has poisonous leaves and seeds although the fruit pulp is not poisonous. The picture below is typical of its fruits. Name the genus.

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Aristarchus of Samos wrote a treatise On the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and Moon and was said by Archimedes to be the first to hypothesize that the fixed stars and the sun remain unmoved, that the earth revolves about the sun on the circumference of a circle, the sun lying in the middle of the orbit. In his treatise, Aristarchus reported a method to determine the sizes relative to the earth of the sun and the moon and also their relative distances from the earth. What was his method of determining these?
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What was the position on suicide of each of the philosophers below?
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To an ornithologist a bluebird is Sialia wilsonii. What is a bluebird to a gem dealer?
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In 1733 Richard Saunders saying he was "excessive poor" began publishing for "some considerable share of the profits" and added to the end of his name the title, philom. What did he publish? Who was he? What is the meaning of the title, philom.?
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Whooping Cranes are a very endangered species with only about 300 to 400 left in the world and only between 100 and 200 of these migrating in the wild from northern to southern North America with their habitat west of the Mississippi River. Since young birds learn the migration routes from older birds there are no longer any whooping cranes left which know the migration routes in eastern North America. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service hopes to reintroduce this species to the eastern United States. How do they theorize they can overcome the fact that no cranes know those migration routes? (Now, in the autumn of 2000, they are in the process of testing their theory. How?)
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Tom and Joe are big baseball fans. Tom is a Met's fan and Joe is a Yankee's fan. Joe had to work during a recent World Series game and since he would have no access to TV or radio he asked Tom to videotape the game for him. During the game while Tom was taping it began to look like the Mets might lose. So Tom, being religious, got down on his knees and prayed for the Mets to come from behind.
Tom did not tell Joe the outcome of the game but just gave him the videotape. Later, while watching the tape, Joe began to think his favored Yankees might lose so he also said a prayer trying to influence the outcome of the game.
Now some people might say the Joe was foolish praying to influence the outcome of a game that had already been decided and was recorded on videotape. They might even think that Joe was more foolish in his praying than Tom.
Based on his philosophy, how do you think John Calvin would feel about this question? Would he feel that Joe was more foolish than Tom? Why or why not?
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What type of microscope provided the first images of individual atoms on the surfaces of materials and can image atomic details as tiny as 1/25th the diameter of a typical atom, which corresponds to a resolution several orders of magnitude better than the best electron microscope. Who invented this microscope and when?
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What was "Big Ear"?
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I need to pump water from a stream in the mountains to my cabin on a hill above the stream. There is no electricity available and no road to the stream giving access to deliver fossil fuels. Due to the protection of the hills wind power is not an option. Without using wind, electricity, gas, oil, coal, or wood what is the best type of water pump for my needs and what source of power will it use?
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Albert Einstein is said by mathematicians to have an Erdös number of 3. What does this mean?
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What is wrong with the following list: ?
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From about 1935 to 1948 a debate raged among biologists in the USSR. The man who was most responsible for winning the debate and setting Soviet science back for years started something called the "vernalisation movement". He and his followers announced a new theory of heredity that rejected the existence of genes and held that the basis of heredity did not lie in some special self- reproducing substance. On the contrary, the cell itself, in their view, developed into an organism, and there was no part of it not subject to evolutionary development. Heredity was based on the interaction between the organism and its environment, through the internalisation of external conditions. They thus recognised no distinction between genotype and phenotype.
The science of genetics was denounced as reactionary, bourgeois, idealist and formalist. It was held to be contrary to the Marxist philosophy of dialectical materialism. Its stress on the relative stability of the gene was supposedly a denial of dialectical development as well as an assault on materialism. Its emphasis on internality was thought to be a rejection of the interconnectedness of every aspect of nature. Its notion of the randomness and indirectness of mutation was held to undercut both the determinism of natural processes and man's ability to shape nature in a purposeful way.
This man's quotes include: Who was this pseudo-scientist?
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What is the Casimir force?
see Answer
In a TV movie in which Earth is threatened by an asteroid, the Hubble Space Telescope is turned toward the asteroid to transmit real time video of the approaching threat. What is wrong with this scenario?
see Answer
What is the significance of the Higgs boson?
see Answer
They are called "Killer Lakes" because, in 1986, the one pictured below killed 1700 people two years after the other lake had killed 37 people. What are the names of these two lakes? Where are they located? How do they kill people?

see Answer
What trait do Golden rice and Starlink corn share?
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When I was in high school and college there were no electronic calculators. I used a couple of mechanical devices to perform the same functions and became somewhat adept at their use. One was an instrument used to add and subtract by means of sliding beads. The other was an instrument to multiply and divide by means of sliding wooden or plastic panels marked with logarithmic scales. What were these two instruments?
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What is this?

see Answer
If I want to compare two NEOs (Near Earth Objects such as comets or asteroids) as to their hazard to Earth what scale would I use for this comparison?
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Why will August 27, 2003 be a particularly good time for observation of the planet, Mars?
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24 satellites in 6 orbital planes, 4 satellites in each plane, 20,200 Km altitude, 55 degree inclination. What does this describe?
see Answer
There is no actual retrograde motion of the planets in our solar system except for the rotation of one planet. What is the cause of apparent retrograde motions of the planets and what planet actually exhibits retrograde rotation?
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Collectively, what are these?
see Answer
In 1783 man made his first free flight in the air untethered to the ground. Who? Where? How?
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What animal is this?

Scientific name please.
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Please identify these?

see Answer
Which one of the following does not belong and why?
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Which one of the following does not belong and why?
  1. Limestone
  2. Sandstone
  3. Granite
  4. Shale
  5. Coal
  6. Chalk
  7. Chert

see Answer
Where is this?

see Answer
Between 4 and 6 am on Sunday morning, November 18, 2001, residents of the east coast of the United States will be able to see a meteor storm that is predicted to be the most spectacular within current lifetimes. Other similar storms were in November of 1799, and 1833 and 1966. In general such heavy meteor showers in November occur every 33 to 34 years. Why do they occur every 33 to 34 years?

see Answer
Where is this?

see Answer
What genus is the tree in this picture?

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Spacecraft from earth have yet to visit one planet in our solar system. What planet? Plans to launch a spacecraft to visit this planet include plans to sample its atmosphere. To do this it will be necessary for the spacecraft to reach the planet before the year 2020 or else it will be necessary to wait over 200 years. Why?
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Below is an ASTER image of Mount St. Helens. What is an ASTER image?

see Answer
Which one of the following does not belong and why?
  1. Mount Lassen
  2. Popocatepetl
  3. San Vicente
  4. Mount Mitchell
  5. Mount Erebus
  6. Mount Unzen
  7. Ruapehu
  8. Fogo Caldera

see Answer
From February 11 to 22, 2000 the American space shuttle was successful in completing the SRTM project. What was the purpose and result of this project?
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Spider silk can be useful as it is a very tough material. A biotech company thinks that it can be commercially valuable for such uses as bulletproof vests and aerospace and medical supplies. This company's answer to the problem of how to mass produce spider silk involves goats. What is the name of the company and how are goats involved?
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I am a honey bee in a hive. Another bee returns from foraging for new sources of nectar and begins to dance in the hive. Rather than doing a waggle or "tail wagging" dance, the newly arrived scout bee does a round dance. What do I now know about the source of nectar that that bee has discovered?
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Below is a list of pairs of words describing ways of thinking. One word of each pair describes left-brain thinking and the other describes right-brain thinking processes. Please split these pairs into two groups of words based on whether that particular way of thinking is more a left-brain or a right-brain activity.
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Which one does not belong and why?
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What is this?

see Answer
In old philosophy, what is the 12 letter word for a fifth substance, superior to earth, air, fire and water?
see Answer
This ongoing analysis of data has become the largest computation project in the world. As of July 2001 it had produced 890 billion billion floating point operations. What is it?
see Answer
If I tell you that Protista is one of the four Kingdoms of the Eucarya Domain, can you name the other three?
see Answer
This metal alloy of Nickel and Titanium, when it is below its critical temperature, is in its martensitic state and can be bent easily. However, above that temperature it is in its autenitic state and becomes rigidly locked into a previously "remembered" shape. What is the name of this alloy and what general term is given to alloys with this characteristic?
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One of the biggest and most ancient lakes of the world is situated nearly in the center of Asia in a huge stone bowl set 445 m above sea level. Everyone who has been to its shores is impressed and charmed by the grandeur, size, and unusual might of this miracle of nature. What lake is this and about how large and how old is it?
see Answer
Probably the most horrifying legendary sea monster, this huge, many armed, creature could reach as high as the top of a sailing ship's main mast. They would attack a ship, wrap their arms around the hull and capsize it. The crew would drown or be eaten by the monster.
This monster was probably real.
It is probably a carnivorous mollusk with a beak-like mouth strong enough to cut through a steel cable and whose eyes are the largest in the animal kingdom -- growing up to 45 centimeters (18 inches) wide.
It is believed to feed on, among other things, the world's biggest animals with several eyewitness stories from fisherman who have seen it in fierce battles with whales.
What creature is thought to be this legendary monster?
see Answer
What type of compounds are glyceraldehyde and hyaluronic acid?
What is significant about these two specifically?
see Answer
According to the Ancient Greeks, there are three women who write the book of life.
One is the spinner, one is the weaver, and one cuts the cloth.
What names are given to them by the Greeks individually and collectively? (Use Greek terms.)
see Answer

Where would we find the world's largest known crystals?
"There are huge selenite crystals the size of pine trees, 30 to 50 feet high, with some weighing in excess of 10 tons."
They are protected from vandalism by temperatures hovering near 150 degrees F. with 100% humidity. A person can only stay in that environment for six to ten minutes.
see Answer
The Field of a Hundred Fissures near Mihintale, Sri Lanka is a series of caves created by what geological phenomena in what year?
see Answer
What is the term for a repeating pattern of interlocking shapes such as that below? Please give web references to other examples.

see Answer
Please add the fourth line to the following:
Aries   Ram     Head    Mars    Fire
Taurus  Bull    Neck    Venus   Earth
Gemini  Twins   Chest   Mercury Air

see Answer
What are these? Tourists in Hawaii are warned to avoid them.

see Answer
Several centuries B.C. Siddhartha married a neighboring princess named Yasodhara and she bore him a son whom they called Rahula. What was Siddhartha's surname? After his life changing experience the world knew him by another name. By what name is he better known?
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Why do groups of women living in the same household often have synchronous menstrual cycles? What scientist discovered this?
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A poem by Henry Schriver:
Through winter's cold and summer's breeze,
She's the author of our milk and cheese;
When she's gone and at last she rests,
She leaves us numerous bequests;
The briefcases that she leaves behind,
protect the plans of all mankind.
But belts are her halo and crown;
They keep our pants from falling down.
Who is she?
see Answer
It is considered a test of your eyesight to first find Mizar and then to see if you can see Alcor. What and where are these?
see Answer
In human genes the DNA sequence TTAGGG - repeated over and over indicates what?
see Answer
The American biologist, Lynn Margulis, espouses a theory that evolution is driven more by cooperation, symbiosis, among organisms rather than, as Darwin theorized, by competition. According to this theory new species can be created by endosymbiosis and the biosphere itself is simply a mass of cooperating bacteria. Explain the genetic basis for this theory and the evidence supporting it and its implications?
see Answer
What are these?
  1. Hand Gonne - circa 1400
  2. Serpentine Lock (Early to Mid 1400's)
  3. Matchlock - Mid 1400s
  4. Wheel Lock - circa 1517
  5. Snaphaunce - circa 1570
  6. Flintlock - circa 1612
  7. Percussion Cap - 1805

Which one of them is represented above?
see Answer
It has been found that some (maybe most or all) disease causing bacteria, when they are present in a victim's body, do not begin to attack their host until sufficient numbers of the bacteria are present for the ensuing attack to be significant. What signals the bacteria to begin such an attack? Please tell something about the researchers and the research in this field.
see Answer
Add three words to this list and explain:
see Answer
As a group what are these? Please explain and comment.
see Answer
Which one of the following does not belong and why?
see Answer
If there is an Orange Catholic Bible in my sietch, where am I?
see Answer
"Go, eat your bread in gladness, and drink your wine in joy; for your action was long ago approved by God. Let your clothes always be freshly washed, and your head never lack ointment. Enjoy happiness with a woman you love all the fleeting days of life that have been granted to you under the sun -- all your fleeting days. For that alone is what you can get out of life and out of the means you acquire under the sun. Whatever it is in your power to do, do with all your might."
Where do we find these words of existentialist philosophy?
see Answer
What is the significance of using telomerase to exceed the Hayflick limit?
see Answer
How are the Lost City Vents different than magma vents?
see Answer
Born in 1842, he wrote a two volume work on psychology in 1890 which was called the James and later an abridgement of it called the Jimmy. He is recognized as the father of American pragmatism. Who was he?
see Answer
In math "XYZZY" is a mnemonic device to remember what?
see Answer
As a group, what are these?
see Answer
After November 1, 2003 when will be the next solar eclipse?
When will be the next lunar eclipse?
see Answer
Please give the primary chemical equation for the reaction that takes place in the bottom of the lamp below.

see Answer

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