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In the heel-in trench, all roots should be covered plus about one inch of the stems. The heel-in site should be in well drained soil, preferably a sandy soil. Water should be available for use in excessively dry periods. Pine planting stock can be stored satisfactorily in 1,000 lot bundles in cellars for a week if it is kept moist and well ventilated. Stock cannot be stored with roots in water. Such storage for periods of even one day in injurious.
Hardwood planting stock frequently is more difficult to store in bundles in heeling-in beds. The bulkier root systems favor the development of harmful molds. If moldy roots are in evidence when the stock is received, report this to the district office. If any hardwood stock is to be held for more than two days before it is planted, the bundles should be broken and the stock should be heeled-in.
Planting stock can be planted directly from buckets containing water. On rough terrain, trays, in which the tree roots are protected by wet moss, may be used. The puddling of tree roots in mud or a soil-water solution at time of planting is usually unnecessary. Since hard freezing of planting stock roots will reduce survival, stock should not be handled bare rooted in the open during extreme freezing weather.
Planting machines have limited adaptation to Kentucky planting sites. Topography is the most limiting factor. Their use must be confined to the more gently rolling terrain with few gullies or to flat lands. Planting machines, where they can be used, save more time, labor, and costs; recommended on areas three acres in size or larger. Planting machines are available through the Division of Forestry, on a rental basis. Contact the District Forester for the machine.
The black walnut spacing should generally be 12' x 14'. It can be planted in mixture with another species to result in an overall spacing of 6' x 7'.
Scalping is usually done at the time of planting with a mattock. It consists of removing surface vegetation from an 8 to 10 inch square, cutting just deep enough to reduce the regrowth of grasses from the roots. Scalping is necessary only on the more fertile soils where a rank growth of grasses or other close growing vegetation is expected to compete seriously. Seedlings usually can compete successfully with coarse weeds, such as ragweed.
Observations have shown that the mulching of critical areas such as strip mines or the mulching of planted trees on severely eroded areas, has increased initial survival and initial growth. The tight mulching of such areas easily can double planting costs. Where mulching materials are not readily available, costs mount rapidly. Straw-type mulching material is desirable. Proper mulching consists of a light uniform coating of straw, pine or cedar branches, leaf litter, or sericea stems. It does not include the haphazard throwing of brush into gullies.
Removal of undesirable species and scrubby brush of no economic value, which if allowed to remain on the site would interfere with the survival and growth of the plantation, is recommended.
Chemicals (herbicides) registered for controlling many herbaceous weeds and woody plants on forestland are: 2-4-D, 2-4-5-T, and Silvex. The labels of the containers of the previously mentioned herbicides detail all the registered uses. If a use is not on the label, it is not registered for that use. Read and thoroughly understand the herbicide label before using the chemical.
Note: Since this was written in the 1970s some of these chemicals have been taken off the market and others have been developed.
1. Foliage spraying 2. Basal spraying 3. Cutting and spraying 4. Grill girdling with chemicals 5. Grass controlPrecautions
1. Follow guidelines for safe use of pesticides. (See Pesticide Information). 2. 2-4-D, 2-4-5-T, and Silvex have a low direct toxicity to man, however, some people may be allergic to the chemicals or oil used in the mixtures. Gloves, goggles, and protective clothing should be available and when there is spray mist in the air, a respirator is desirable. 3. Keep drift to a minimum, especially in the vicinity of desirable plants and water supplies. 4. If illness occurs during application and pesticide poisoning is suspected, call a physician immediately. Know the location of the poison control center nearest you. Silvex is not used to a great extent on forestland.Description of Site Preparation Methods
1. Foliage-Spraying-applied during July and up to August 15th. Spraying may be done with a hand operated garden-type sprayer on low growing vegetation and shrubbery. All foliage must be wet thoroughly with a mixture of 2-4-5-T concentrate (4 lb. acid equivalent per gallon) and water. Ratio = 1 part 2-4-5-T to 100 parts water. 2. Basal-Spraying-applied at any time during the year. Spraying by hand operated garden-type sprayer is desirable to the point of run-off. The lower 18-24 inches of the stems (up to 4" diameter) must be thoroughly covered with a mixture of 2-4-5-T concentrate and #2 fuel oil. Ratio = 1 part 2-4-5-T to 20 parts fuel oil. A garden-type spray may be used to apply the mixture. 3. Frill-Girdling-with chemicals suitable at any time during the year. A sharp axe is used on the larger stems (4" and up in diameter) to make a deep frill around the tree as close to the ground as is practicable. The frill and stem portion below the frill are then wet thoroughly with a mixture of 2-4-5-T concentrate and #2 fuel oil. Ratio = 1 part 2-4-5-T to 20 parts fuel oil. A garden-type spray may be used to apply the mixture. 4. Cutting and Spraying-applied at any time during the year. Small stems (1-4 inches in diameter) may be cut with saw or axe and close to the ground as is practicable. The stub is then treated by spraying or painting with a mixture of 2-4-5-T concentrate and #2 fuel oil. Ratio = 1 part 2-4-5-T to 20 parts fuel oil. Note: Mixtures of 2-4-5-T concentrate must contain at lease four pounds acid equivalent to the gallon. 5. Grass Control-Survival of tree seedlings in grass sod, especially fescue, is often poor. Survival can be increased by preplanting treatment with the herbicide, Dalapon. Dalapon should be applied when the fescue begins to grow (usually early April). Follow label instructions for amounts needed. Dalapon can also be used as a spot treatment around seedlings in place, but care should be taken not to allow the herbicide to get on seedling foliage.
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